Oobleck enables resilient distributed training of large DNN models with guaranteed fault tolerance. It takes a planning-execution co-design approach, where it first generates a set of heterogeneous pipeline templates and instantiates at least $f+1$ logically equivalent pipeline replicas to tolerate any $f$ simultaneous failures. During execution, it relies on already-replicated model states across the replicas to provide fast recovery. Oobleck provably guarantees that some combination of the initially created pipeline templates can be used to cover all available resources after $f$ or fewer simultaneous failures, thereby avoiding resource idling at all times. Evaluation on large DNN models with billions of parameters shows that Oobleck provides consistently high throughput, and it outperforms state-of-the-art fault tolerance solutions like Bamboo and Varuna by up to $13.9x$.
Deep learning has experienced significant growth in recent years, resulting in increased energy consumption and carbon emission from the use of GPUs for training deep neural networks (DNNs). Answering the call for sustainability, conventional solutions have attempted to move training jobs to locations or time frames with lower carbon intensity. However, moving jobs to other locations may not always be feasible due to large dataset sizes or data regulations. Moreover, postponing training can negatively impact application service quality because the DNNs backing the service are not updated in a timely fashion. In this work, we present a practical solution that reduces the carbon footprint of DNN training without migrating or postponing jobs. Specifically, our solution observes real-time carbon intensity shifts during training and controls the energy consumption of GPUs, thereby reducing carbon footprint while maintaining training performance. Furthermore, in order to proactively adapt to shifting carbon intensity, we propose a lightweight machine learning algorithm that predicts the carbon intensity of the upcoming time frame. Our solution, Chase, reduces the total carbon footprint of training ResNet-50 on ImageNet by 13.6% while only increasing training time by 2.5%.
Semantic segmentation is a challenging computer vision task demanding a significant amount of pixel-level annotated data. Producing such data is a time-consuming and costly process, especially for domains with a scarcity of experts, such as medicine or forensic anthropology. While numerous semi-supervised approaches have been developed to make the most from the limited labeled data and ample amount of unlabeled data, domain-specific real-world datasets often have characteristics that both reduce the effectiveness of off-the-shelf state-of-the-art methods and also provide opportunities to create new methods that exploit these characteristics. We propose and evaluate a semi-supervised method that reuses available labels for unlabeled images of a dataset by exploiting existing similarities, while dynamically weighting the impact of these reused labels in the training process. We evaluate our method on a large dataset of human decomposition images and find that our method, while conceptually simple, outperforms state-of-the-art consistency and pseudo-labeling-based methods for the segmentation of this dataset. This paper includes graphic content of human decomposition.
Annotating images for semantic segmentation requires intense manual labor and is a time-consuming and expensive task especially for domains with a scarcity of experts, such as Forensic Anthropology. We leverage the evolving nature of images depicting the decay process in human decomposition data to design a simple yet effective pseudo-pixel-level label generation technique to reduce the amount of effort for manual annotation of such images. We first identify sequences of images with a minimum variation that are most suitable to share the same or similar annotation using an unsupervised approach. Given one user-annotated image in each sequence, we propagate the annotation to the remaining images in the sequence by merging it with annotations produced by a state-of-the-art CAM-based pseudo label generation technique. To evaluate the quality of our pseudo-pixel-level labels, we train two semantic segmentation models with VGG and ResNet backbones on images labeled using our pseudo labeling method and those of a state-of-the-art method. The results indicate that using our pseudo-labels instead of those generated using the state-of-the-art method in the training process improves the mean-IoU and the frequency-weighted-IoU of the VGG and ResNet-based semantic segmentation models by 3.36%, 2.58%, 10.39%, and 12.91% respectively.
Deep neural networks have achieved state-of-the-art performance in a wide range of recognition/classification tasks. However, when applying deep learning to real-world applications, there are still multiple challenges. A typical challenge is that unknown samples may be fed into the system during the testing phase and traditional deep neural networks will wrongly recognize the unknown sample as one of the known classes. Open set recognition is a potential solution to overcome this problem, where the open set classifier should have the ability to reject unknown samples as well as maintain high classification accuracy on known classes. The variational auto-encoder (VAE) is a popular model to detect unknowns, but it cannot provide discriminative representations for known classification. In this paper, we propose a novel method, Conditional Gaussian Distribution Learning (CGDL), for open set recognition. In addition to detecting unknown samples, this method can also classify known samples by forcing different latent features to approximate different Gaussian models. Meanwhile, to avoid information hidden in the input vanishing in the middle layers, we also adopt the probabilistic ladder architecture to extract high-level abstract features. Experiments on several standard image datasets reveal that the proposed method significantly outperforms the baseline method and achieves new state-of-the-art results.