We consider the problem of domain adaptation in LiDAR-based 3D object detection. Towards this, we propose a simple yet effective training strategy called Gradual Batch Alternation that can adapt from a large labeled source domain to an insufficiently labeled target domain. The idea is to initiate the training with the batch of samples from the source and target domain data in an alternate fashion, but then gradually reduce the amount of the source domain data over time as the training progresses. This way the model slowly shifts towards the target domain and eventually better adapt to it. The domain adaptation experiments for 3D object detection on four benchmark autonomous driving datasets, namely ONCE, PandaSet, Waymo, and nuScenes, demonstrate significant performance gains over prior arts and strong baselines.
In this paper, we introduce a new dataset, the driver emotion facial expression (DEFE) dataset, for driver spontaneous emotions analysis. The dataset includes facial expression recordings from 60 participants during driving. After watching a selected video-audio clip to elicit a specific emotion, each participant completed the driving tasks in the same driving scenario and rated their emotional responses during the driving processes from the aspects of dimensional emotion and discrete emotion. We also conducted classification experiments to recognize the scales of arousal, valence, dominance, as well as the emotion category and intensity to establish baseline results for the proposed dataset. Besides, this paper compared and discussed the differences in facial expressions between driving and non-driving scenarios. The results show that there were significant differences in AUs (Action Units) presence of facial expressions between driving and non-driving scenarios, indicating that human emotional expressions in driving scenarios were different from other life scenarios. Therefore, publishing a human emotion dataset specifically for the driver is necessary for traffic safety improvement. The proposed dataset will be publicly available so that researchers worldwide can use it to develop and examine their driver emotion analysis methods. To the best of our knowledge, this is currently the only public driver facial expression dataset.