Airport ground handling (AGH) offers necessary operations to flights during their turnarounds and is of great importance to the efficiency of airport management and the economics of aviation. Such a problem involves the interplay among the operations that leads to NP-hard problems with complex constraints. Hence, existing methods for AGH are usually designed with massive domain knowledge but still fail to yield high-quality solutions efficiently. In this paper, we aim to enhance the solution quality and computation efficiency for solving AGH. Particularly, we first model AGH as a multiple-fleet vehicle routing problem (VRP) with miscellaneous constraints including precedence, time windows, and capacity. Then we propose a construction framework that decomposes AGH into sub-problems (i.e., VRPs) in fleets and present a neural method to construct the routing solutions to these sub-problems. In specific, we resort to deep learning and parameterize the construction heuristic policy with an attention-based neural network trained with reinforcement learning, which is shared across all sub-problems. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our method significantly outperforms classic meta-heuristics, construction heuristics and the specialized methods for AGH. Besides, we empirically verify that our neural method generalizes well to instances with large numbers of flights or varying parameters, and can be readily adapted to solve real-time AGH with stochastic flight arrivals. Our code is publicly available at: https://github.com/RoyalSkye/AGH.
Universal lesion detection in computed tomography (CT) images is an important yet challenging task due to the large variations in lesion type, size, shape, and appearance. Considering that data in clinical routine (such as the DeepLesion dataset) are usually annotated with a long and a short diameter according to the standard of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) diameters, we propose RECIST-Net, a new approach to lesion detection in which the four extreme points and center point of the RECIST diameters are detected. By detecting a lesion as keypoints, we provide a more conceptually straightforward formulation for detection, and overcome several drawbacks (e.g., requiring extensive effort in designing data-appropriate anchors and losing shape information) of existing bounding-box-based methods while exploring a single-task, one-stage approach compared to other RECIST-based approaches. Experiments show that RECIST-Net achieves a sensitivity of 92.49% at four false positives per image, outperforming other recent methods including those using multi-task learning.
Histological subtype of papillary (p) renal cell carcinoma (RCC), type 1 vs. type 2, is an essential prognostic factor. The two subtypes of pRCC have a similar pattern, i.e., the papillary architecture, yet some subtle differences, including cellular and cell-layer level patterns. However, the cellular and cell-layer level patterns almost cannot be captured by existing CNN-based models in large-size histopathological images, which brings obstacles to directly applying these models to such a fine-grained classification task. This paper proposes a novel instance-based Vision Transformer (i-ViT) to learn robust representations of histopathological images for the pRCC subtyping task by extracting finer features from instance patches (by cropping around segmented nuclei and assigning predicted grades). The proposed i-ViT takes top-K instances as input and aggregates them for capturing both the cellular and cell-layer level patterns by a position-embedding layer, a grade-embedding layer, and a multi-head multi-layer self-attention module. To evaluate the performance of the proposed framework, experienced pathologists are invited to selected 1162 regions of interest from 171 whole slide images of type 1 and type 2 pRCC. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves better performance than existing CNN-based models with a significant margin.
The grade of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a critical prognostic factor, making ccRCC nuclei grading a crucial task in RCC pathology analysis. Computer-aided nuclei grading aims to improve pathologists' work efficiency while reducing their misdiagnosis rate by automatically identifying the grades of tumor nuclei within histopathological images. Such a task requires precisely segment and accurately classify the nuclei. However, most of the existing nuclei segmentation and classification methods can not handle the inter-class similarity property of nuclei grading, thus can not be directly applied to the ccRCC grading task. In this paper, we propose a Composite High-Resolution Network for ccRCC nuclei grading. Specifically, we propose a segmentation network called W-Net that can separate the clustered nuclei. Then, we recast the fine-grained classification of nuclei to two cross-category classification tasks, based on two high-resolution feature extractors (HRFEs) which are proposed for learning these two tasks. The two HRFEs share the same backbone encoder with W-Net by a composite connection so that meaningful features for the segmentation task can be inherited for the classification task. Last, a head-fusion block is applied to generate the predicted label of each nucleus. Furthermore, we introduce a dataset for ccRCC nuclei grading, containing 1000 image patches with 70945 annotated nuclei. We demonstrate that our proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance compared to existing methods on this large ccRCC grading dataset.