The design of novel protein sequences with targeted functionalities underpins a central theme in protein engineering, impacting diverse fields such as drug discovery and enzymatic engineering. However, navigating this vast combinatorial search space remains a severe challenge due to time and financial constraints. This scenario is rapidly evolving as the transformative advancements in AI, particularly in the realm of generative models and optimization algorithms, have been propelling the protein design field towards an unprecedented revolution. In this survey, we systematically review recent advances in generative AI for controllable protein sequence design. To set the stage, we first outline the foundational tasks in protein sequence design in terms of the constraints involved and present key generative models and optimization algorithms. We then offer in-depth reviews of each design task and discuss the pertinent applications. Finally, we identify the unresolved challenges and highlight research opportunities that merit deeper exploration.
Deep learning approaches exhibit promising performances on various text tasks. However, they are still struggling on medical text classification since samples are often extremely imbalanced and scarce. Different from existing mainstream approaches that focus on supplementary semantics with external medical information, this paper aims to rethink the data challenges in medical texts and present a novel framework-agnostic algorithm called Text2Tree that only utilizes internal label hierarchy in training deep learning models. We embed the ICD code tree structure of labels into cascade attention modules for learning hierarchy-aware label representations. Two new learning schemes, Similarity Surrogate Learning (SSL) and Dissimilarity Mixup Learning (DML), are devised to boost text classification by reusing and distinguishing samples of other labels following the label representation hierarchy, respectively. Experiments on authoritative public datasets and real-world medical records show that our approach stably achieves superior performances over classical and advanced imbalanced classification methods.
Large language models (LLMs) have achieved remarkable advancements in the field of natural language processing. However, the sheer scale and computational demands of these models present formidable challenges when considering their practical deployment in resource-constrained contexts. While techniques such as chain-of-thought (CoT) distillation have displayed promise in distilling LLMs into small language models (SLMs), there is a risk that distilled SLMs may still carry over flawed reasoning or hallucinations inherited from their LLM counterparts. To address these issues, we propose a twofold methodology: First, we introduce a novel method for distilling the self-evaluation capability inherent in LLMs into SLMs, which aims to mitigate the adverse effects of erroneous reasoning and reduce hallucinations. Second, we advocate for a comprehensive distillation process that incorporates multiple distinct chain-of-thought and self-evaluation paradigms and ensures a more holistic and robust knowledge transfer into SLMs. Experiments on three NLP benchmarks demonstrate that our method significantly improves the performance of distilled SLMs and sheds light on the path towards developing smaller models closely aligned with human cognition.