The contemporary LLMs are prone to producing hallucinations, stemming mainly from the knowledge gaps within the models. To address this critical limitation, researchers employ diverse strategies to augment the LLMs by incorporating external knowledge, aiming to reduce hallucinations and enhance reasoning accuracy. Among these strategies, leveraging knowledge graphs as a source of external information has demonstrated promising results. In this survey, we conduct a comprehensive review of these knowledge-graph-based knowledge augmentation techniques in LLMs, focusing on their efficacy in mitigating hallucinations. We systematically categorize these methods into three overarching groups, offering both methodological comparisons and empirical evaluations of their performance. Lastly, the paper explores the challenges associated with these techniques and outlines potential avenues for future research in this emerging field.
In recent years, there has been a rapid proliferation of AI-generated text, primarily driven by the release of powerful pre-trained language models (PLMs). To address the issue of misuse associated with AI-generated text, various high-performing detectors have been developed, including the OpenAI detector and the Stanford DetectGPT. In our study, we ask how reliable these detectors are. We answer the question by designing a novel approach that can prompt any PLM to generate text that evades these high-performing detectors. The proposed approach suggests a universal evasive prompt, a novel type of soft prompt, which guides PLMs in producing "human-like" text that can mislead the detectors. The novel universal evasive prompt is achieved in two steps: First, we create an evasive soft prompt tailored to a specific PLM through prompt tuning; and then, we leverage the transferability of soft prompts to transfer the learned evasive soft prompt from one PLM to another. Employing multiple PLMs in various writing tasks, we conduct extensive experiments to evaluate the efficacy of the evasive soft prompts in their evasion of state-of-the-art detectors.
Large language models (LLMs) are increasingly being used for generating text in a variety of use cases, including journalistic news articles. Given the potential malicious nature in which these LLMs can be used to generate disinformation at scale, it is important to build effective detectors for such AI-generated text. Given the surge in development of new LLMs, acquiring labeled training data for supervised detectors is a bottleneck. However, there might be plenty of unlabeled text data available, without information on which generator it came from. In this work we tackle this data problem, in detecting AI-generated news text, and frame the problem as an unsupervised domain adaptation task. Here the domains are the different text generators, i.e. LLMs, and we assume we have access to only the labeled source data and unlabeled target data. We develop a Contrastive Domain Adaptation framework, called ConDA, that blends standard domain adaptation techniques with the representation power of contrastive learning to learn domain invariant representations that are effective for the final unsupervised detection task. Our experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework, resulting in average performance gains of 31.7% from the best performing baselines, and within 0.8% margin of a fully supervised detector. All our code and data is available at https://github.com/AmritaBh/ConDA-gen-text-detection.
The rapid proliferation of AI-generated text online is profoundly reshaping the information landscape. Among various types of AI-generated text, AI-generated news presents a significant threat as it can be a prominent source of misinformation online. While several recent efforts have focused on detecting AI-generated text in general, these methods require enhanced reliability, given concerns about their vulnerability to simple adversarial attacks. Furthermore, due to the eccentricities of news writing, applying these detection methods for AI-generated news can produce false positives, potentially damaging the reputation of news organizations. To address these challenges, we leverage the expertise of an interdisciplinary team to develop a framework, J-Guard, capable of steering existing supervised AI text detectors for detecting AI-generated news while boosting adversarial robustness. By incorporating stylistic cues inspired by the unique journalistic attributes, J-Guard effectively distinguishes between real-world journalism and AI-generated news articles. Our experiments on news articles generated by a vast array of AI models, including ChatGPT (GPT3.5), demonstrate the effectiveness of J-Guard in enhancing detection capabilities while maintaining an average performance decrease of as low as 7% when faced with adversarial attacks.
* This Paper is Accepted to The 13th International Joint Conference on
Natural Language Processing and the 3rd Conference of the Asia-Pacific
Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (IJCNLP-AACL 2023)
Large language models (LLMs) such as GPT-4, PaLM, and Llama have significantly propelled the generation of AI-crafted text. With rising concerns about their potential misuse, there is a pressing need for AI-generated-text forensics. Neural authorship attribution is a forensic effort, seeking to trace AI-generated text back to its originating LLM. The LLM landscape can be divided into two primary categories: proprietary and open-source. In this work, we delve into these emerging categories of LLMs, focusing on the nuances of neural authorship attribution. To enrich our understanding, we carry out an empirical analysis of LLM writing signatures, highlighting the contrasts between proprietary and open-source models, and scrutinizing variations within each group. By integrating stylometric features across lexical, syntactic, and structural aspects of language, we explore their potential to yield interpretable results and augment pre-trained language model-based classifiers utilized in neural authorship attribution. Our findings, based on a range of state-of-the-art LLMs, provide empirical insights into neural authorship attribution, paving the way for future investigations aimed at mitigating the threats posed by AI-generated misinformation.
Social media platforms, despite their value in promoting open discourse, are often exploited to spread harmful content. Current deep learning and natural language processing models used for detecting this harmful content overly rely on domain-specific terms affecting their capabilities to adapt to generalizable hate speech detection. This is because they tend to focus too narrowly on particular linguistic signals or the use of certain categories of words. Another significant challenge arises when platforms lack high-quality annotated data for training, leading to a need for cross-platform models that can adapt to different distribution shifts. Our research introduces a cross-platform hate speech detection model capable of being trained on one platform's data and generalizing to multiple unseen platforms. To achieve good generalizability across platforms, one way is to disentangle the input representations into invariant and platform-dependent features. We also argue that learning causal relationships, which remain constant across diverse environments, can significantly aid in understanding invariant representations in hate speech. By disentangling input into platform-dependent features (useful for predicting hate targets) and platform-independent features (used to predict the presence of hate), we learn invariant representations resistant to distribution shifts. These features are then used to predict hate speech across unseen platforms. Our extensive experiments across four platforms highlight our model's enhanced efficacy compared to existing state-of-the-art methods in detecting generalized hate speech.
Hate speech detection refers to the task of detecting hateful content that aims at denigrating an individual or a group based on their religion, gender, sexual orientation, or other characteristics. Due to the different policies of the platforms, different groups of people express hate in different ways. Furthermore, due to the lack of labeled data in some platforms it becomes challenging to build hate speech detection models. To this end, we revisit if we can learn a generalizable hate speech detection model for the cross platform setting, where we train the model on the data from one (source) platform and generalize the model across multiple (target) platforms. Existing generalization models rely on linguistic cues or auxiliary information, making them biased towards certain tags or certain kinds of words (e.g., abusive words) on the source platform and thus not applicable to the target platforms. Inspired by social and psychological theories, we endeavor to explore if there exist inherent causal cues that can be leveraged to learn generalizable representations for detecting hate speech across these distribution shifts. To this end, we propose a causality-guided framework, PEACE, that identifies and leverages two intrinsic causal cues omnipresent in hateful content: the overall sentiment and the aggression in the text. We conduct extensive experiments across multiple platforms (representing the distribution shift) showing if causal cues can help cross-platform generalization.
Recent advancements in pre-trained language models have enabled convenient methods for generating human-like text at a large scale. Though these generation capabilities hold great potential for breakthrough applications, it can also be a tool for an adversary to generate misinformation. In particular, social media platforms like Twitter are highly susceptible to AI-generated misinformation. A potential threat scenario is when an adversary hijacks a credible user account and incorporates a natural language generator to generate misinformation. Such threats necessitate automated detectors for AI-generated tweets in a given user's Twitter timeline. However, tweets are inherently short, thus making it difficult for current state-of-the-art pre-trained language model-based detectors to accurately detect at what point the AI starts to generate tweets in a given Twitter timeline. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm using stylometric signals to aid detecting AI-generated tweets. We propose models corresponding to quantifying stylistic changes in human and AI tweets in two related tasks: Task 1 - discriminate between human and AI-generated tweets, and Task 2 - detect if and when an AI starts to generate tweets in a given Twitter timeline. Our extensive experiments demonstrate that the stylometric features are effective in augmenting the state-of-the-art AI-generated text detectors.