Deep learning-based surrogate models have demonstrated remarkable advantages over classical solvers in terms of speed, often achieving speedups of 10 to 1000 times over traditional partial differential equation (PDE) solvers. However, a significant challenge hindering their widespread adoption in both scientific and industrial domains is the lack of understanding about their prediction uncertainties, particularly in scenarios that involve critical decision making. To address this limitation, we propose a method that integrates efficient and precise uncertainty quantification into a deep learning-based surrogate model. Our method, termed Latent Evolution of PDEs with Uncertainty Quantification (LE-PDE-UQ), endows deep learning-based surrogate models with robust and efficient uncertainty quantification capabilities for both forward and inverse problems. LE-PDE-UQ leverages latent vectors within a latent space to evolve both the system's state and its corresponding uncertainty estimation. The latent vectors are decoded to provide predictions for the system's state as well as estimates of its uncertainty. In extensive experiments, we demonstrate the accurate uncertainty quantification performance of our approach, surpassing that of strong baselines including deep ensembles, Bayesian neural network layers, and dropout. Our method excels at propagating uncertainty over extended auto-regressive rollouts, making it suitable for scenarios involving long-term predictions. Our code is available at: https://github.com/AI4Science-WestlakeU/le-pde-uq.
Inverse design, where we seek to design input variables in order to optimize an underlying objective function, is an important problem that arises across fields such as mechanical engineering to aerospace engineering. Inverse design is typically formulated as an optimization problem, with recent works leveraging optimization across learned dynamics models. However, as models are optimized they tend to fall into adversarial modes, preventing effective sampling. We illustrate that by instead optimizing over the learned energy function captured by the diffusion model, we can avoid such adversarial examples and significantly improve design performance. We further illustrate how such a design system is compositional, enabling us to combine multiple different diffusion models representing subcomponents of our desired system to design systems with every specified component. In an N-body interaction task and a challenging 2D multi-airfoil design task, we demonstrate that by composing the learned diffusion model at test time, our method allows us to design initial states and boundary shapes that are more complex than those in the training data. Our method outperforms state-of-the-art neural inverse design method by an average of 41.5% in prediction MAE and 14.3% in design objective for the N-body dataset and discovers formation flying to minimize drag in the multi-airfoil design task. Project website and code can be found at https://github.com/AI4Science-WestlakeU/cindm.
Elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are a major class of time-independent PDEs that play a key role in many scientific and engineering domains such as fluid dynamics, plasma physics, and solid mechanics. Recently, neural operators have emerged as a promising technique to solve elliptic PDEs more efficiently by directly mapping the input to solutions. However, existing networks typically cannot handle complex geometries and inhomogeneous boundary values present in the real world. Here we introduce Boundary-Embedded Neural Operators (BENO), a novel neural operator architecture that embeds the complex geometries and inhomogeneous boundary values into the solving of elliptic PDEs. Inspired by classical Green's function, BENO consists of two branches of Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) for interior source term and boundary values, respectively. Furthermore, a Transformer encoder maps the global boundary geometry into a latent vector which influences each message passing layer of the GNNs. We test our model extensively in elliptic PDEs with various boundary conditions. We show that all existing baseline methods fail to learn the solution operator. In contrast, our model, endowed with boundary-embedded architecture, outperforms state-of-the-art neural operators and strong baselines by an average of 60.96\%. Our source code can be found https://github.com/AI4Science-WestlakeU/beno.git.
In machine learning, generalization against distribution shifts -- where deployment conditions diverge from the training scenarios -- is crucial, particularly in fields like climate modeling, biomedicine, and autonomous driving. The emergence of foundation models, distinguished by their extensive pretraining and task versatility, has led to an increased interest in their adaptability to distribution shifts. GPT-4V(ision) acts as the most advanced publicly accessible multimodal foundation model, with extensive applications across various domains, including anomaly detection, video understanding, image generation, and medical diagnosis. However, its robustness against data distributions remains largely underexplored. Addressing this gap, this study rigorously evaluates GPT-4V's adaptability and generalization capabilities in dynamic environments, benchmarking against prominent models like CLIP and LLaVA. We delve into GPT-4V's zero-shot generalization across 13 diverse datasets spanning natural, medical, and molecular domains. We further investigate its adaptability to controlled data perturbations and examine the efficacy of in-context learning as a tool to enhance its adaptation. Our findings delineate GPT-4V's capability boundaries in distribution shifts, shedding light on its strengths and limitations across various scenarios. Importantly, this investigation contributes to our understanding of how AI foundation models generalize to distribution shifts, offering pivotal insights into their adaptability and robustness. Code is publicly available at https://github.com/jameszhou-gl/gpt-4v-distribution-shift.
Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) are fueling a new paradigm of discoveries in natural sciences. Today, AI has started to advance natural sciences by improving, accelerating, and enabling our understanding of natural phenomena at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, giving rise to a new area of research known as AI for science (AI4Science). Being an emerging research paradigm, AI4Science is unique in that it is an enormous and highly interdisciplinary area. Thus, a unified and technical treatment of this field is needed yet challenging. This paper aims to provide a technically thorough account of a subarea of AI4Science; namely, AI for quantum, atomistic, and continuum systems. These areas aim at understanding the physical world from the subatomic (wavefunctions and electron density), atomic (molecules, proteins, materials, and interactions), to macro (fluids, climate, and subsurface) scales and form an important subarea of AI4Science. A unique advantage of focusing on these areas is that they largely share a common set of challenges, thereby allowing a unified and foundational treatment. A key common challenge is how to capture physics first principles, especially symmetries, in natural systems by deep learning methods. We provide an in-depth yet intuitive account of techniques to achieve equivariance to symmetry transformations. We also discuss other common technical challenges, including explainability, out-of-distribution generalization, knowledge transfer with foundation and large language models, and uncertainty quantification. To facilitate learning and education, we provide categorized lists of resources that we found to be useful. We strive to be thorough and unified and hope this initial effort may trigger more community interests and efforts to further advance AI4Science.
Simulating the time evolution of physical systems is pivotal in many scientific and engineering problems. An open challenge in simulating such systems is their multi-resolution dynamics: a small fraction of the system is extremely dynamic, and requires very fine-grained resolution, while a majority of the system is changing slowly and can be modeled by coarser spatial scales. Typical learning-based surrogate models use a uniform spatial scale, which needs to resolve to the finest required scale and can waste a huge compute to achieve required accuracy. In this work, we introduce Learning controllable Adaptive simulation for Multi-resolution Physics (LAMP) as the first full deep learning-based surrogate model that jointly learns the evolution model and optimizes appropriate spatial resolutions that devote more compute to the highly dynamic regions. LAMP consists of a Graph Neural Network (GNN) for learning the forward evolution, and a GNN-based actor-critic for learning the policy of spatial refinement and coarsening. We introduce learning techniques that optimizes LAMP with weighted sum of error and computational cost as objective, allowing LAMP to adapt to varying relative importance of error vs. computation tradeoff at inference time. We evaluate our method in a 1D benchmark of nonlinear PDEs and a challenging 2D mesh-based simulation. We demonstrate that our LAMP outperforms state-of-the-art deep learning surrogate models, and can adaptively trade-off computation to improve long-term prediction error: it achieves an average of 33.7% error reduction for 1D nonlinear PDEs, and outperforms MeshGraphNets + classical Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) in 2D mesh-based simulations. Project website with data and code can be found at: http://snap.stanford.edu/lamp.
Visual relations form the basis of understanding our compositional world, as relationships between visual objects capture key information in a scene. It is then advantageous to learn relations automatically from the data, as learning with predefined labels cannot capture all possible relations. However, current relation learning methods typically require supervision, and are not designed to generalize to scenes with more complicated relational structures than those seen during training. Here, we introduce ViRel, a method for unsupervised discovery and learning of Visual Relations with graph-level analogy. In a setting where scenes within a task share the same underlying relational subgraph structure, our learning method of contrasting isomorphic and non-isomorphic graphs discovers the relations across tasks in an unsupervised manner. Once the relations are learned, ViRel can then retrieve the shared relational graph structure for each task by parsing the predicted relational structure. Using a dataset based on grid-world and the Abstract Reasoning Corpus, we show that our method achieves above 95% accuracy in relation classification, discovers the relation graph structure for most tasks, and further generalizes to unseen tasks with more complicated relational structures.
* ICML 2022 Beyond Bayes: Paths Towards Universal Reasoning Systems
Workshop; 17 pages, 10 figures
Humans have the remarkable ability to recognize and acquire novel visual concepts in a zero-shot manner. Given a high-level, symbolic description of a novel concept in terms of previously learned visual concepts and their relations, humans can recognize novel concepts without seeing any examples. Moreover, they can acquire new concepts by parsing and communicating symbolic structures using learned visual concepts and relations. Endowing these capabilities in machines is pivotal in improving their generalization capability at inference time. In this work, we introduce Zero-shot Concept Recognition and Acquisition (ZeroC), a neuro-symbolic architecture that can recognize and acquire novel concepts in a zero-shot way. ZeroC represents concepts as graphs of constituent concept models (as nodes) and their relations (as edges). To allow inference time composition, we employ energy-based models (EBMs) to model concepts and relations. We design ZeroC architecture so that it allows a one-to-one mapping between a symbolic graph structure of a concept and its corresponding EBM, which for the first time, allows acquiring new concepts, communicating its graph structure, and applying it to classification and detection tasks (even across domains) at inference time. We introduce algorithms for learning and inference with ZeroC. We evaluate ZeroC on a challenging grid-world dataset which is designed to probe zero-shot concept recognition and acquisition, and demonstrate its capability.
Simulating the time evolution of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) of large-scale systems is crucial in many scientific and engineering domains such as fluid dynamics, weather forecasting and their inverse optimization problems. However, both classical solvers and recent deep learning-based surrogate models are typically extremely computationally intensive, because of their local evolution: they need to update the state of each discretized cell at each time step during inference. Here we develop Latent Evolution of PDEs (LE-PDE), a simple, fast and scalable method to accelerate the simulation and inverse optimization of PDEs. LE-PDE learns a compact, global representation of the system and efficiently evolves it fully in the latent space with learned latent evolution models. LE-PDE achieves speed-up by having a much smaller latent dimension to update during long rollout as compared to updating in the input space. We introduce new learning objectives to effectively learn such latent dynamics to ensure long-term stability. We further introduce techniques for speeding-up inverse optimization of boundary conditions for PDEs via backpropagation through time in latent space, and an annealing technique to address the non-differentiability and sparse interaction of boundary conditions. We test our method in a 1D benchmark of nonlinear PDEs, 2D Navier-Stokes flows into turbulent phase and an inverse optimization of boundary conditions in 2D Navier-Stokes flow. Compared to state-of-the-art deep learning-based surrogate models and other strong baselines, we demonstrate up to 128x reduction in the dimensions to update, and up to 15x improvement in speed, while achieving competitive accuracy.