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Minhyuk Seo, Hyunseo Koh, Wonje Jeung, Minjae Lee, San Kim, Hankook Lee, Sungjun Cho, Sungik Choi, Hyunwoo Kim, Jonghyun Choi

Online continual learning suffers from an underfitted solution due to insufficient training for prompt model update (e.g., single-epoch training). To address the challenge, we propose an efficient online continual learning method using the neural collapse phenomenon. In particular, we induce neural collapse to form a simplex equiangular tight frame (ETF) structure in the representation space so that the continuously learned model with a single epoch can better fit to the streamed data by proposing preparatory data training and residual correction in the representation space. With an extensive set of empirical validations using CIFAR-10/100, TinyImageNet, ImageNet-200, and ImageNet-1K, we show that our proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art methods by a noticeable margin in various online continual learning scenarios such as disjoint and Gaussian scheduled continuous (i.e., boundary-free) data setups.

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Sungjun Cho, Dae-Woong Jeong, Sung Moon Ko, Jinwoo Kim, Sehui Han, Seunghoon Hong, Honglak Lee, Moontae Lee

Pretraining molecular representations from large unlabeled data is essential for molecular property prediction due to the high cost of obtaining ground-truth labels. While there exist various 2D graph-based molecular pretraining approaches, these methods struggle to show statistically significant gains in predictive performance. Recent work have thus instead proposed 3D conformer-based pretraining under the task of denoising, which led to promising results. During downstream finetuning, however, models trained with 3D conformers require accurate atom-coordinates of previously unseen molecules, which are computationally expensive to acquire at scale. In light of this limitation, we propose D&D, a self-supervised molecular representation learning framework that pretrains a 2D graph encoder by distilling representations from a 3D denoiser. With denoising followed by cross-modal knowledge distillation, our approach enjoys use of knowledge obtained from denoising as well as painless application to downstream tasks with no access to accurate conformers. Experiments on real-world molecular property prediction datasets show that the graph encoder trained via D&D can infer 3D information based on the 2D graph and shows superior performance and label-efficiency against other baselines.

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Real-world graphs naturally exhibit hierarchical or cyclical structures that are unfit for the typical Euclidean space. While there exist graph neural networks that leverage hyperbolic or spherical spaces to learn representations that embed such structures more accurately, these methods are confined under the message-passing paradigm, making the models vulnerable against side-effects such as oversmoothing and oversquashing. More recent work have proposed global attention-based graph Transformers that can easily model long-range interactions, but their extensions towards non-Euclidean geometry are yet unexplored. To bridge this gap, we propose Fully Product-Stereographic Transformer, a generalization of Transformers towards operating entirely on the product of constant curvature spaces. When combined with tokenized graph Transformers, our model can learn the curvature appropriate for the input graph in an end-to-end fashion, without the need of additional tuning on different curvature initializations. We also provide a kernelized approach to non-Euclidean attention, which enables our model to run in time and memory cost linear to the number of nodes and edges while respecting the underlying geometry. Experiments on graph reconstruction and node classification demonstrate the benefits of generalizing Transformers to the non-Euclidean domain.

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Since the recent advent of regulations for data protection (e.g., the General Data Protection Regulation), there has been increasing demand in deleting information learned from sensitive data in pre-trained models without retraining from scratch. The inherent vulnerability of neural networks towards adversarial attacks and unfairness also calls for a robust method to remove or correct information in an instance-wise fashion, while retaining the predictive performance across remaining data. To this end, we define instance-wise unlearning, of which the goal is to delete information on a set of instances from a pre-trained model, by either misclassifying each instance away from its original prediction or relabeling the instance to a different label. We also propose two methods that reduce forgetting on the remaining data: 1) utilizing adversarial examples to overcome forgetting at the representation-level and 2) leveraging weight importance metrics to pinpoint network parameters guilty of propagating unwanted information. Both methods only require the pre-trained model and data instances to forget, allowing painless application to real-life settings where the entire training set is unavailable. Through extensive experimentation on various image classification benchmarks, we show that our approach effectively preserves knowledge of remaining data while unlearning given instances in both single-task and continual unlearning scenarios.

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To overcome the quadratic cost of self-attention, recent works have proposed various sparse attention modules, most of which fall under one of two groups: 1) sparse attention under a hand-crafted patterns and 2) full attention followed by a sparse variant of softmax such as $\alpha$-entmax. Unfortunately, the first group lacks adaptability to data while the second still requires quadratic cost in training. In this work, we propose SBM-Transformer, a model that resolves both problems by endowing each attention head with a mixed-membership Stochastic Block Model (SBM). Then, each attention head data-adaptively samples a bipartite graph, the adjacency of which is used as an attention mask for each input. During backpropagation, a straight-through estimator is used to flow gradients beyond the discrete sampling step and adjust the probabilities of sampled edges based on the predictive loss. The forward and backward cost are thus linear to the number of edges, which each attention head can also choose flexibly based on the input. By assessing the distribution of graphs, we theoretically show that SBM-Transformer is a universal approximator for arbitrary sequence-to-sequence functions in expectation. Empirical evaluations under the LRA and GLUE benchmarks demonstrate that our model outperforms previous efficient variants as well as the original Transformer with full attention. Our implementation can be found in https://github.com/sc782/SBM-Transformer .

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Despite the evolution of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), their performance is surprisingly dependent on the choice of hyperparameters. However, it remains challenging to efficiently explore large hyperparameter search space due to the long training times of modern CNNs. Multi-fidelity optimization enables the exploration of more hyperparameter configurations given budget by early termination of unpromising configurations. However, it often results in selecting a sub-optimal configuration as training with the high-performing configuration typically converges slowly in an early phase. In this paper, we propose Multi-fidelity Optimization with a Recurring Learning rate (MORL) which incorporates CNNs' optimization process into multi-fidelity optimization. MORL alleviates the problem of slow-starter and achieves a more precise low-fidelity approximation. Our comprehensive experiments on general image classification, transfer learning, and semi-supervised learning demonstrate the effectiveness of MORL over other multi-fidelity optimization methods such as Successive Halving Algorithm (SHA) and Hyperband. Furthermore, it achieves significant performance improvements over hand-tuned hyperparameter configuration within a practical budget.

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Graph pooling is a crucial operation for encoding hierarchical structures within graphs. Most existing graph pooling approaches formulate the problem as a node clustering task which effectively captures the graph topology. Conventional methods ask users to specify an appropriate number of clusters as a hyperparameter, then assume that all input graphs share the same number of clusters. In inductive settings where the number of clusters can vary, however, the model should be able to represent this variation in its pooling layers in order to learn suitable clusters. Thus we propose GMPool, a novel differentiable graph pooling architecture that automatically determines the appropriate number of clusters based on the input data. The main intuition involves a grouping matrix defined as a quadratic form of the pooling operator, which induces use of binary classification probabilities of pairwise combinations of nodes. GMPool obtains the pooling operator by first computing the grouping matrix, then decomposing it. Extensive evaluations on molecular property prediction tasks demonstrate that our method outperforms conventional methods.

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Many problems in computer vision and machine learning can be cast as learning on hypergraphs that represent higher-order relations. Recent approaches for hypergraph learning extend graph neural networks based on message passing, which is simple yet fundamentally limited in modeling long-range dependencies and expressive power. On the other hand, tensor-based equivariant neural networks enjoy maximal expressiveness, but their application has been limited in hypergraphs due to heavy computation and strict assumptions on fixed-order hyperedges. We resolve these problems and present Equivariant Hypergraph Neural Network (EHNN), the first attempt to realize maximally expressive equivariant layers for general hypergraph learning. We also present two practical realizations of our framework based on hypernetworks (EHNN-MLP) and self-attention (EHNN-Transformer), which are easy to implement and theoretically more expressive than most message passing approaches. We demonstrate their capability in a range of hypergraph learning problems, including synthetic k-edge identification, semi-supervised classification, and visual keypoint matching, and report improved performances over strong message passing baselines. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/jw9730/ehnn.

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We show that standard Transformers without graph-specific modifications can lead to promising results in graph learning both in theory and practice. Given a graph, we simply treat all nodes and edges as independent tokens, augment them with token embeddings, and feed them to a Transformer. With an appropriate choice of token embeddings, we prove that this approach is theoretically at least as expressive as an invariant graph network (2-IGN) composed of equivariant linear layers, which is already more expressive than all message-passing Graph Neural Networks (GNN). When trained on a large-scale graph dataset (PCQM4Mv2), our method coined Tokenized Graph Transformer (TokenGT) achieves significantly better results compared to GNN baselines and competitive results compared to Transformer variants with sophisticated graph-specific inductive bias. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/jw9730/tokengt.

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Across many data domains, co-occurrence statistics about the joint appearance of objects are powerfully informative. By transforming unsupervised learning problems into decompositions of co-occurrence statistics, spectral algorithms provide transparent and efficient algorithms for posterior inference such as latent topic analysis and community detection. As object vocabularies grow, however, it becomes rapidly more expensive to store and run inference algorithms on co-occurrence statistics. Rectifying co-occurrence, the key process to uphold model assumptions, becomes increasingly more vital in the presence of rare terms, but current techniques cannot scale to large vocabularies. We propose novel methods that simultaneously compress and rectify co-occurrence statistics, scaling gracefully with the size of vocabulary and the dimension of latent space. We also present new algorithms learning latent variables from the compressed statistics, and verify that our methods perform comparably to previous approaches on both textual and non-textual data.

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