Evaluation of Large Language Models (LLMs) is challenging because aligning to human values requires the composition of multiple skills and the required set of skills varies depending on the instruction. Recent studies have evaluated the performance of LLMs in two ways, (1) automatic evaluation on several independent benchmarks and (2) human or machined-based evaluation giving an overall score to the response. However, both settings are coarse-grained evaluations, not considering the nature of user instructions that require instance-wise skill composition, which limits the interpretation of the true capabilities of LLMs. In this paper, we introduce FLASK (Fine-grained Language Model Evaluation based on Alignment SKill Sets), a fine-grained evaluation protocol that can be used for both model-based and human-based evaluation which decomposes coarse-level scoring to an instance-wise skill set-level. Specifically, we define 12 fine-grained skills needed for LLMs to follow open-ended user instructions and construct an evaluation set by allocating a set of skills for each instance. Additionally, by annotating the target domains and difficulty level for each instance, FLASK provides a holistic view with a comprehensive analysis of a model's performance depending on skill, domain, and difficulty. Through using FLASK, we compare multiple open-sourced and proprietary LLMs and observe highly-correlated findings between model-based and human-based evaluations. FLASK enables developers to more accurately measure the model performance and how it can be improved by analyzing factors that make LLMs proficient in particular skills. For practitioners, FLASK can be used to recommend suitable models for particular situations through comprehensive comparison among various LLMs. We release the evaluation data and code implementation at https://github.com/kaistAI/FLASK.
In this work, we empirically show that updating pretrained LMs (350M, 1.3B, 2.7B) with just a few steps of Gradient Ascent Post-training (GAP) on random, unlabeled text corpora enhances its zero-shot generalization capabilities across diverse NLP tasks. Specifically, we show that GAP can allow LMs to become comparable to 2-3x times larger LMs across 12 different NLP tasks. We also show that applying GAP on out-of-distribution corpora leads to the most reliable performance improvements. Our findings indicate that GAP can be a promising method for improving the generalization capability of LMs without any task-specific fine-tuning.
Parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) methods have emerged to mitigate the prohibitive cost of full fine-tuning large language models (LLMs). Nonetheless, the enormous size of LLMs impedes routine deployment. To address the issue, we present Parameter-Efficient and Quantization-aware Adaptation (PEQA), a novel quantization-aware PEFT technique that facilitates model compression and accelerates inference. PEQA operates through a dual-stage process: initially, the parameter matrix of each fully-connected layer undergoes quantization into a matrix of low-bit integers and a scalar vector; subsequently, fine-tuning occurs on the scalar vector for each downstream task. Such a strategy compresses the size of the model considerably, leading to a lower inference latency upon deployment and a reduction in the overall memory required. At the same time, fast fine-tuning and efficient task switching becomes possible. In this way, PEQA offers the benefits of quantization, while inheriting the advantages of PEFT. We compare PEQA with competitive baselines in comprehensive experiments ranging from natural language understanding to generation benchmarks. This is done using large language models of up to $65$ billion parameters, demonstrating PEQA's scalability, task-specific adaptation performance, and ability to follow instructions, even in extremely low-bit settings.
Most task-oriented dialogue (TOD) benchmarks assume users that know exactly how to use the system by constraining the user behaviors within the system's capabilities via strict user goals, namely "user familiarity" bias. This data bias deepens when it combines with data-driven TOD systems, as it is impossible to fathom the effect of it with existing static evaluations. Hence, we conduct an interactive user study to unveil how vulnerable TOD systems are against realistic scenarios. In particular, we compare users with 1) detailed goal instructions that conform to the system boundaries (closed-goal) and 2) vague goal instructions that are often unsupported but realistic (open-goal). Our study reveals that conversations in open-goal settings lead to catastrophic failures of the system, in which 92% of the dialogues had significant issues. Moreover, we conduct a thorough analysis to identify distinctive features between the two settings through error annotation. From this, we discover a novel "pretending" behavior, in which the system pretends to handle the user requests even though they are beyond the system's capabilities. We discuss its characteristics and toxicity while emphasizing transparency and a fallback strategy for robust TOD systems.
Aligning large language models (LLMs) to human values has become increasingly important as it enables sophisticated steering of LLMs, e.g., making them follow given instructions while keeping them less toxic. However, it requires a significant amount of human demonstrations and feedback. Recently, open-sourced models have attempted to replicate the alignment learning process by distilling data from already aligned LLMs like InstructGPT or ChatGPT. While this process reduces human efforts, constructing these datasets has a heavy dependency on the teacher models. In this work, we propose a novel framework for alignment learning with almost no human labor and no dependency on pre-aligned LLMs. First, we perform reward modeling (RM) with synthetic feedback by contrasting responses from vanilla LLMs with various sizes and prompts. Then, we use the RM for simulating high-quality demonstrations to train a supervised policy and for further optimizing the model with reinforcement learning. Our resulting model, Aligned Language Model with Synthetic Training dataset (ALMoST), outperforms open-sourced models, including Alpaca, Dolly, and OpenAssistant, which are trained on the outputs of InstructGPT or human-annotated instructions. Our 7B-sized model outperforms the 12-13B models in the A/B tests using GPT-4 as the judge with about 75% winning rate on average.
Efficient video-language modeling should consider the computational cost because of a large, sometimes intractable, number of video frames. Parametric approaches such as the attention mechanism may not be ideal since its computational cost quadratically increases as the video length increases. Rather, previous studies have relied on offline feature extraction or frame sampling to represent the video efficiently, focusing on cross-modal modeling in short video clips. In this paper, we propose a semi-parametric video-grounded text generation model, SeViT, a novel perspective on scalable video-language modeling toward long untrimmed videos. Treating a video as an external data store, SeViT includes a non-parametric frame retriever to select a few query-relevant frames from the data store for a given query and a parametric generator to effectively aggregate the frames with the query via late fusion methods. Experimental results demonstrate our method has a significant advantage in longer videos and causal video understanding. Moreover, our model achieves the new state of the art on four video-language datasets, iVQA (+4.8), Next-QA (+6.9), and Activitynet-QA (+4.8) in accuracy, and MSRVTT-Caption (+3.6) in CIDEr.
Large language models (LLMs) provide a new way to build chatbots by accepting natural language prompts. Yet, it is unclear how to design prompts to power chatbots to carry on naturalistic conversations while pursuing a given goal, such as collecting self-report data from users. We explore what design factors of prompts can help steer chatbots to talk naturally and collect data reliably. To this aim, we formulated four prompt designs with different structures and personas. Through an online study (N = 48) where participants conversed with chatbots driven by different designs of prompts, we assessed how prompt designs and conversation topics affected the conversation flows and users' perceptions of chatbots. Our chatbots covered 79% of the desired information slots during conversations, and the designs of prompts and topics significantly influenced the conversation flows and the data collection performance. We discuss the opportunities and challenges of building chatbots with LLMs.
Task-oriented dialogue (TOD) systems are mainly based on the slot-filling-based TOD (SF-TOD) framework, in which dialogues are broken down into smaller, controllable units (i.e., slots) to fulfill a specific task. A series of approaches based on this framework achieved remarkable success on various TOD benchmarks. However, we argue that the current TOD benchmarks are limited to surrogate real-world scenarios and that the current TOD models are still a long way from unraveling the scenarios. In this position paper, we first identify current status and limitations of SF-TOD systems. After that, we explore the WebTOD framework, the alternative direction for building a scalable TOD system when a web/mobile interface is available. In WebTOD, the dialogue system learns how to understand the web/mobile interface that the human agent interacts with, powered by a large-scale language model.
Remembering important information from the past and continuing to talk about it in the present are crucial in long-term conversations. However, previous literature does not deal with cases where the memorized information is outdated, which may cause confusion in later conversations. To address this issue, we present a novel task and a corresponding dataset of memory management in long-term conversations, in which bots keep track of and bring up the latest information about users while conversing through multiple sessions. In order to support more precise and interpretable memory, we represent memory as unstructured text descriptions of key information and propose a new mechanism of memory management that selectively eliminates invalidated or redundant information. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms the baselines that leave the stored memory unchanged in terms of engagingness and humanness, with larger performance gap especially in the later sessions.
Current natural language interaction for self-tracking tools largely depends on bespoke implementation optimized for a specific tracking theme and data format, which is neither generalizable nor scalable to a tremendous design space of self-tracking. However, training machine learning models in the context of self-tracking is challenging due to the wide variety of tracking topics and data formats. In this paper, we propose a novel NLP task for self-tracking that extracts close- and open-ended information from a retrospective activity log described as a plain text, and a domain-agnostic, GPT-3-based NLU framework that performs this task. The framework augments the prompt using synthetic samples to transform the task into 10-shot learning, to address a cold-start problem in bootstrapping a new tracking topic. Our preliminary evaluation suggests that our approach significantly outperforms the baseline QA models. Going further, we discuss future application domains toward which the NLP and HCI researchers can collaborate.