As large language models become increasingly integrated into daily life, detecting implicit toxicity across diverse contexts is crucial. To this end, we introduce LifeTox, a dataset designed for identifying implicit toxicity within a broad range of advice-seeking scenarios. Unlike existing safety datasets, LifeTox comprises diverse contexts derived from personal experiences through open-ended questions. Experiments demonstrate that RoBERTa fine-tuned on LifeTox matches or surpasses the zero-shot performance of large language models in toxicity classification tasks. These results underscore the efficacy of LifeTox in addressing the complex challenges inherent in implicit toxicity.
An exciting advancement in the field of multilingual models is the emergence of autoregressive models with zero- and few-shot capabilities, a phenomenon widely reported in large-scale language models. To further improve model adaptation to cross-lingual tasks, another trend is to further fine-tune the language models with either full fine-tuning or parameter-efficient tuning. However, the interaction between parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) and cross-lingual tasks in multilingual autoregressive models has yet to be studied. Specifically, we lack an understanding of the role of linguistic distributions in multilingual models in the effectiveness of token-based prompt tuning. To address this question, we conduct experiments comparing prompt tuning and fine-tuning on the decoder-based multilingual model, XGLM, with four cross-lingual tasks (XNLI, PAWS-X, POS, NER). According to our study, prompt tuning achieves on par or better performance over fine-tuning across all languages while updating at most 0.13\% of the model parameters. Moreover, we empirically show that prompt tuning is more effective in enhancing the performance of low-resource languages than fine-tuning. Our further analysis shows that the phenomenon is related to the tokenization scheme of the multilingual model.
Being able to predict people's opinions on issues and behaviors in realistic scenarios can be helpful in various domains, such as politics and marketing. However, conducting large-scale surveys like the European Social Survey to solicit people's opinions on individual issues can incur prohibitive costs. Leveraging prior research showing influence of core human values on individual decisions and actions, we propose to use value-injected large language models (LLM) to predict opinions and behaviors. To this end, we present Value Injection Method (VIM), a collection of two methods -- argument generation and question answering -- designed to inject targeted value distributions into LLMs via fine-tuning. We then conduct a series of experiments on four tasks to test the effectiveness of VIM and the possibility of using value-injected LLMs to predict opinions and behaviors of people. We find that LLMs value-injected with variations of VIM substantially outperform the baselines. Also, the results suggest that opinions and behaviors can be better predicted using value-injected LLMs than the baseline approaches.
Questions in open-domain question answering are often ambiguous, allowing multiple interpretations. One approach to handling them is to identify all possible interpretations of the ambiguous question (AQ) and to generate a long-form answer addressing them all, as suggested by Stelmakh et al., (2022). While it provides a comprehensive response without bothering the user for clarification, considering multiple dimensions of ambiguity and gathering corresponding knowledge remains a challenge. To cope with the challenge, we propose a novel framework, Tree of Clarifications (ToC): It recursively constructs a tree of disambiguations for the AQ -- via few-shot prompting leveraging external knowledge -- and uses it to generate a long-form answer. ToC outperforms existing baselines on ASQA in a few-shot setup across the metrics, while surpassing fully-supervised baselines trained on the whole training set in terms of Disambig-F1 and Disambig-ROUGE. Code is available at https://github.com/gankim/tree-of-clarifications.
Large language models (LLMs) learn not only natural text generation abilities but also social biases against different demographic groups from real-world data. This poses a critical risk when deploying LLM-based applications. Existing research and resources are not readily applicable in South Korea due to the differences in language and culture, both of which significantly affect the biases and targeted demographic groups. This limitation requires localized social bias datasets to ensure the safe and effective deployment of LLMs. To this end, we present KO SB I, a new social bias dataset of 34k pairs of contexts and sentences in Korean covering 72 demographic groups in 15 categories. We find that through filtering-based moderation, social biases in generated content can be reduced by 16.47%p on average for HyperCLOVA (30B and 82B), and GPT-3.
The potential social harms that large language models pose, such as generating offensive content and reinforcing biases, are steeply rising. Existing works focus on coping with this concern while interacting with ill-intentioned users, such as those who explicitly make hate speech or elicit harmful responses. However, discussions on sensitive issues can become toxic even if the users are well-intentioned. For safer models in such scenarios, we present the Sensitive Questions and Acceptable Response (SQuARe) dataset, a large-scale Korean dataset of 49k sensitive questions with 42k acceptable and 46k non-acceptable responses. The dataset was constructed leveraging HyperCLOVA in a human-in-the-loop manner based on real news headlines. Experiments show that acceptable response generation significantly improves for HyperCLOVA and GPT-3, demonstrating the efficacy of this dataset.
Parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) methods have emerged to mitigate the prohibitive cost of full fine-tuning large language models (LLMs). Nonetheless, the enormous size of LLMs impedes routine deployment. To address the issue, we present Parameter-Efficient and Quantization-aware Adaptation (PEQA), a novel quantization-aware PEFT technique that facilitates model compression and accelerates inference. PEQA operates through a dual-stage process: initially, the parameter matrix of each fully-connected layer undergoes quantization into a matrix of low-bit integers and a scalar vector; subsequently, fine-tuning occurs on the scalar vector for each downstream task. Such a strategy compresses the size of the model considerably, leading to a lower inference latency upon deployment and a reduction in the overall memory required. At the same time, fast fine-tuning and efficient task switching becomes possible. In this way, PEQA offers the benefits of quantization, while inheriting the advantages of PEFT. We compare PEQA with competitive baselines in comprehensive experiments ranging from natural language understanding to generation benchmarks. This is done using large language models of up to $65$ billion parameters, demonstrating PEQA's scalability, task-specific adaptation performance, and ability to follow instructions, even in extremely low-bit settings.
Ambiguous questions persist in open-domain question answering, because formulating a precise question with a unique answer is often challenging. Previously, Min et al. (2020) have tackled this issue by generating disambiguated questions for all possible interpretations of the ambiguous question. This can be effective, but not ideal for providing an answer to the user. Instead, we propose to ask a clarification question, where the user's response will help identify the interpretation that best aligns with the user's intention. We first present CAMBIGNQ, a dataset consisting of 5,654 ambiguous questions, each with relevant passages, possible answers, and a clarification question. The clarification questions were efficiently created by generating them using InstructGPT and manually revising them as necessary. We then define a pipeline of tasks and design appropriate evaluation metrics. Lastly, we achieve 61.3 F1 on ambiguity detection and 40.5 F1 on clarification-based QA, providing strong baselines for future work.
Steering language generation towards objectives or away from undesired content has been a long-standing goal in utilizing language models (LM). Recent work has demonstrated reinforcement learning and weighted decoding as effective approaches to achieve a higher level of language control and quality with pros and cons. In this work, we propose a novel critic decoding method for controlled language generation (CriticControl) that combines the strengths of reinforcement learning and weighted decoding. Specifically, we adopt the actor-critic framework to train an LM-steering critic from non-differentiable reward models. And similar to weighted decoding, our method freezes the language model and manipulates the output token distribution using called critic, improving training efficiency and stability. Evaluation of our method on three controlled generation tasks, namely topic control, sentiment control, and detoxification, shows that our approach generates more coherent and well-controlled texts than previous methods. In addition, CriticControl demonstrates superior generalization ability in zero-shot settings. Human evaluation studies also corroborate our findings.
As the importance of identifying misinformation is increasing, many researchers focus on verifying textual claims on the web. One of the most popular tasks to achieve this is fact verification, which retrieves an evidence sentence from a large knowledge source such as Wikipedia to either verify or refute each factual claim. However, while such problem formulation is helpful for detecting false claims and fake news, it is not applicable to catching subtle differences in factually consistent claims which still might implicitly bias the readers, especially in contentious topics such as political, gender, or racial issues. In this study, we propose ClaimDiff, a novel dataset to compare the nuance between claim pairs in both a discriminative and a generative manner, with the underlying assumption that one is not necessarily more true than the other. This differs from existing fact verification datasets that verify the target sentence with respect to an absolute truth. We hope this task assists people in making more informed decisions among various sources of media.