In the upcoming decade, deep learning may revolutionize the natural sciences, enhancing our capacity to model and predict natural occurrences. This could herald a new era of scientific exploration, bringing significant advancements across sectors from drug development to renewable energy. To answer this call, we present DeepSpeed4Science initiative (deepspeed4science.ai) which aims to build unique capabilities through AI system technology innovations to help domain experts to unlock today's biggest science mysteries. By leveraging DeepSpeed's current technology pillars (training, inference and compression) as base technology enablers, DeepSpeed4Science will create a new set of AI system technologies tailored for accelerating scientific discoveries by addressing their unique complexity beyond the common technical approaches used for accelerating generic large language models (LLMs). In this paper, we showcase the early progress we made with DeepSpeed4Science in addressing two of the critical system challenges in structural biology research.
Artificial intelligence (AI) methods have become critical in scientific applications to help accelerate scientific discovery. Large language models (LLMs) are being considered as a promising approach to address some of the challenging problems because of their superior generalization capabilities across domains. The effectiveness of the models and the accuracy of the applications is contingent upon their efficient execution on the underlying hardware infrastructure. Specialized AI accelerator hardware systems have recently become available for accelerating AI applications. However, the comparative performance of these AI accelerators on large language models has not been previously studied. In this paper, we systematically study LLMs on multiple AI accelerators and GPUs and evaluate their performance characteristics for these models. We evaluate these systems with (i) a micro-benchmark using a core transformer block, (ii) a GPT- 2 model, and (iii) an LLM-driven science use case, GenSLM. We present our findings and analyses of the models' performance to better understand the intrinsic capabilities of AI accelerators. Furthermore, our analysis takes into account key factors such as sequence lengths, scaling behavior, sparsity, and sensitivity to gradient accumulation steps.
There is great potential to apply machine learning in the area of numerical lattice quantum field theory, but full exploitation of that potential will require new strategies. In this white paper for the Snowmass community planning process, we discuss the unique requirements of machine learning for lattice quantum field theory research and outline what is needed to enable exploration and deployment of this approach in the future.
We propose using Normalizing Flows as a trainable kernel within the molecular dynamics update of Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC). By learning (invertible) transformations that simplify our dynamics, we can outperform traditional methods at generating independent configurations. We show that, using a carefully constructed network architecture, our approach can be easily scaled to large lattice volumes with minimal retraining effort. The source code for our implementation is publicly available online at https://github.com/nftqcd/fthmc.
* 7 pages, 6 figures, presented at The 38th International Symposium on
Lattice Field Theory, LATTICE2021 26th-30th July, 2021 Zoom/Gather @
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
We introduce LeapfrogLayers, an invertible neural network architecture that can be trained to efficiently sample the topology of a 2D $U(1)$ lattice gauge theory. We show an improvement in the integrated autocorrelation time of the topological charge when compared with traditional HMC, and propose methods for scaling our model to larger lattice volumes. Our implementation is open source, and is publicly available on github at https://github.com/saforem2/l2hmc-qcd
* 10 pages, 12 figures, presented at the 38th International Symposium
on Lattice Field Theory, LATTICE2021 26th-30th July, 2021, Zoom/Gather @
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
We generalize the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo algorithm with a stack of neural network layers and evaluate its ability to sample from different topologies in a two dimensional lattice gauge theory. We demonstrate that our model is able to successfully mix between modes of different topologies, significantly reducing the computational cost required to generated independent gauge field configurations. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/saforem2/l2hmc-qcd .
* 8 pages, 7 figures, Published as a workshop paper at ICLR 2021 SimDL