In the upcoming decade, deep learning may revolutionize the natural sciences, enhancing our capacity to model and predict natural occurrences. This could herald a new era of scientific exploration, bringing significant advancements across sectors from drug development to renewable energy. To answer this call, we present DeepSpeed4Science initiative (deepspeed4science.ai) which aims to build unique capabilities through AI system technology innovations to help domain experts to unlock today's biggest science mysteries. By leveraging DeepSpeed's current technology pillars (training, inference and compression) as base technology enablers, DeepSpeed4Science will create a new set of AI system technologies tailored for accelerating scientific discoveries by addressing their unique complexity beyond the common technical approaches used for accelerating generic large language models (LLMs). In this paper, we showcase the early progress we made with DeepSpeed4Science in addressing two of the critical system challenges in structural biology research.
Self Driving Labs (SDLs) that combine automation of experimental procedures with autonomous decision making are gaining popularity as a means of increasing the throughput of scientific workflows. The task of identifying quantities of supplied colored pigments that match a target color, the color matching problem, provides a simple and flexible SDL test case, as it requires experiment proposal, sample creation, and sample analysis, three common components in autonomous discovery applications. We present a robotic solution to the color matching problem that allows for fully autonomous execution of a color matching protocol. Our solution leverages the WEI science factory platform to enable portability across different robotic hardware, the use of alternative optimization methods for continuous refinement, and automated publication of results for experiment tracking and post-hoc analysis.
Advances in robotic automation, high-performance computing (HPC), and artificial intelligence (AI) encourage us to conceive of science factories: large, general-purpose computation- and AI-enabled self-driving laboratories (SDLs) with the generality and scale needed both to tackle large discovery problems and to support thousands of scientists. Science factories require modular hardware and software that can be replicated for scale and (re)configured to support many applications. To this end, we propose a prototype modular science factory architecture in which reconfigurable modules encapsulating scientific instruments are linked with manipulators to form workcells, that can themselves be combined to form larger assemblages, and linked with distributed computing for simulation, AI model training and inference, and related tasks. Workflows that perform sets of actions on modules can be specified, and various applications, comprising workflows plus associated computational and data manipulation steps, can be run concurrently. We report on our experiences prototyping this architecture and applying it in experiments involving 15 different robotic apparatus, five applications (one in education, two in biology, two in materials), and a variety of workflows, across four laboratories. We describe the reuse of modules, workcells, and workflows in different applications, the migration of applications between workcells, and the use of digital twins, and suggest directions for future work aimed at yet more generality and scalability. Code and data are available at https://ad-sdl.github.io/wei2023 and in the Supplementary Information
Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) has become a major experimental technique to determine the structures of large protein complexes and molecular assemblies, as evidenced by the 2017 Nobel Prize. Although cryo-EM has been drastically improved to generate high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) maps that contain detailed structural information about macromolecules, the computational methods for using the data to automatically build structure models are lagging far behind. The traditional cryo-EM model building approach is template-based homology modeling. Manual de novo modeling is very time-consuming when no template model is found in the database. In recent years, de novo cryo-EM modeling using machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) has ranked among the top-performing methods in macromolecular structure modeling. Deep-learning-based de novo cryo-EM modeling is an important application of artificial intelligence, with impressive results and great potential for the next generation of molecular biomedicine. Accordingly, we systematically review the representative ML/DL-based de novo cryo-EM modeling methods. And their significances are discussed from both practical and methodological viewpoints. We also briefly describe the background of cryo-EM data processing workflow. Overall, this review provides an introductory guide to modern research on artificial intelligence (AI) for de novo molecular structure modeling and future directions in this emerging field.