Multilingual Large Language Models (LLMs) have recently shown great capability in various tasks, exhibiting state-of-the-art performance using few-shot or zero-shot prompting methods. While these models have been extensively studied in tasks where inputs are assumed to be in a single language, less attention has been paid to exploring their performance when inputs involve code-switching (CSW). In this paper, we provide an extensive empirical study of various multilingual LLMs and benchmark their performance in three tasks: sentiment analysis, machine translation, and word-level language identification. Our findings indicate that despite multilingual LLMs showing promising outcomes in certain tasks when using zero-/few-shot prompting, their performance still falls short on average when compared to smaller finetuned models. We argue that LLMs that are "multilingual" are not necessarily code-switching compatible and extensive future research is required to fully bridge this gap.
While code-mixing is a common linguistic practice in many parts of the world, collecting high-quality and low-cost code-mixed data remains a challenge for natural language processing (NLP) research. The proliferation of Large Language Models (LLMs) in recent times compels one to ask: can these systems be used for data generation? In this article, we explore prompting multilingual LLMs in a zero-shot manner to create code-mixed data for five languages in South East Asia (SEA) -- Indonesian, Malay, Chinese, Tagalog, Vietnamese, as well as the creole language Singlish. We find that ChatGPT shows the most potential, capable of producing code-mixed text 68% of the time when the term "code-mixing" is explicitly defined. Moreover, both ChatGPT's and InstructGPT's (davinci-003) performances in generating Singlish texts are noteworthy, averaging a 96% success rate across a variety of prompts. Their code-mixing proficiency, however, is dampened by word choice errors that lead to semantic inaccuracies. Other multilingual models such as BLOOMZ and Flan-T5-XXL are unable to produce code-mixed texts altogether. By highlighting the limited promises of LLMs in a specific form of low-resource data generation, we call for a measured approach when applying similar techniques to other data-scarce NLP contexts.
While code-mixing is a common linguistic practice in many parts of the world, collecting high-quality and low-cost code-mixed data remains a challenge for natural language processing (NLP) research. The proliferation of Large Language Models (LLMs) in recent times compels one to ask: can these systems be used for data generation? In this article, we explore prompting LLMs in a zero-shot manner to create code-mixed data for five languages in South East Asia (SEA) -- Indonesian, Malay, Chinese, Tagalog, Vietnamese, as well as the creole language Singlish. We find that ChatGPT shows the most potential, capable of producing code-mixed text 68% of the time when the term "code-mixing" is explicitly defined. Moreover, both ChatGPT and InstructGPT's (davinci-003) performances in generating Singlish texts are noteworthy, averaging a 96% success rate across a variety of prompts. The code-mixing proficiency of ChatGPT and InstructGPT, however, is dampened by word choice errors that lead to semantic inaccuracies. Other multilingual models such as BLOOMZ and Flan-T5-XXL are unable to produce code-mixed texts altogether. By highlighting the limited promises of LLMs in a specific form of low-resource data generation, we call for a measured approach when applying similar techniques to other data-scarce NLP contexts.
Cross-lingual summarization (CLS) has attracted increasing interest in recent years due to the availability of large-scale web-mined datasets and the advancements of multilingual language models. However, given the rareness of naturally occurring CLS resources, the majority of datasets are forced to rely on translation which can contain overly literal artifacts. This restricts our ability to observe naturally occurring CLS pairs that capture organic diction, including instances of code-switching. This alteration between languages in mid-message is a common phenomenon in multilingual settings yet has been largely overlooked in cross-lingual contexts due to data scarcity. To address this gap, we introduce CroCoSum, a dataset of cross-lingual code-switched summarization of technology news. It consists of over 24,000 English source articles and 18,000 human-curated Chinese news summaries, with more than 92% of the summaries containing code-switched phrases. For reference, we evaluate the performance of existing approaches including pipeline, end-to-end, and zero-shot methods. We show that leveraging existing resources as a pretraining step does not improve performance on CroCoSum, indicating the limited generalizability of existing resources. Finally, we discuss the challenges of evaluating cross-lingual summarizers on code-switched generation through qualitative error analyses. Our collection and code can be accessed at https://github.com/RosenZhang/CroCoSum.
Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.
In the pursuit of natural language understanding, there has been a long standing interest in tracking state changes throughout narratives. Impressive progress has been made in modeling the state of transaction-centric dialogues and procedural texts. However, this problem has been less intensively studied in the realm of general discourse where ground truth descriptions of states may be loosely defined and state changes are less densely distributed over utterances. This paper proposes to turn to simplified, fully observable systems that show some of these properties: Sports events. We curated 2,263 soccer matches including time-stamped natural language commentary accompanied by discrete events such as a team scoring goals, switching players or being penalized with cards. We propose a new task formulation where, given paragraphs of commentary of a game at different timestamps, the system is asked to recognize the occurrence of in-game events. This domain allows for rich descriptions of state while avoiding the complexities of many other real-world settings. As an initial point of performance measurement, we include two baseline methods from the perspectives of sentence classification with temporal dependence and current state-of-the-art generative model, respectively, and demonstrate that even sophisticated existing methods struggle on the state tracking task when the definition of state broadens or non-event chatter becomes prevalent.
Recent advances in document image analysis (DIA) have been primarily driven by the application of neural networks. Ideally, research outcomes could be easily deployed in production and extended for further investigation. However, various factors like loosely organized codebases and sophisticated model configurations complicate the easy reuse of important innovations by a wide audience. Though there have been on-going efforts to improve reusability and simplify deep learning (DL) model development in disciplines like natural language processing and computer vision, none of them are optimized for challenges in the domain of DIA. This represents a major gap in the existing toolkit, as DIA is central to academic research across a wide range of disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. This paper introduces layoutparser, an open-source library for streamlining the usage of DL in DIA research and applications. The core layoutparser library comes with a set of simple and intuitive interfaces for applying and customizing DL models for layout detection, character recognition, and many other document processing tasks. To promote extensibility, layoutparser also incorporates a community platform for sharing both pre-trained models and full document digitization pipelines. We demonstrate that layoutparser is helpful for both lightweight and large-scale digitization pipelines in real-word use cases. The library is publicly available at https://layout-parser.github.io/.
This paper describes Brown University's submission to the TREC 2019 Deep Learning track. We followed a 2-phase method for producing a ranking of passages for a given input query: In the the first phase, the user's query is expanded by appending 3 queries generated by a transformer model which was trained to rephrase an input query into semantically similar queries. The expanded query can exhibit greater similarity in surface form and vocabulary overlap with the passages of interest and can therefore serve as enriched input to any downstream information retrieval method. In the second phase, we use a BERT-based model pre-trained for language modeling but fine-tuned for query - document relevance prediction to compute relevance scores for a set of 1000 candidate passages per query and subsequently obtain a ranking of passages by sorting them based on the predicted relevance scores. According to the results published in the official Overview of the TREC Deep Learning Track 2019, our team ranked 3rd in the passage retrieval task (including full ranking and re-ranking), and 2nd when considering only re-ranking submissions.