The NLP community has mainly focused on scaling Large Language Models (LLMs) vertically, i.e., making them better for about 100 languages. We instead scale LLMs horizontally: we create, through continued pretraining, Glot500-m, an LLM that covers 511 predominantly low-resource languages. An important part of this effort is to collect and clean Glot500-c, a corpus that covers these 511 languages and allows us to train Glot500-m. We evaluate Glot500-m on five diverse tasks across these languages. We observe large improvements for both high-resource and low-resource languages compared to an XLM-R baseline. Our analysis shows that no single factor explains the quality of multilingual LLM representations. Rather, a combination of factors determines quality including corpus size, script, "help" from related languages and the total capacity of the model. Our work addresses an important goal of NLP research: we should not limit NLP to a small fraction of the world's languages and instead strive to support as many languages as possible to bring the benefits of NLP technology to all languages and cultures. Code, data and models are available at https://github.com/cisnlp/Glot500.
Recent multilingual pretrained language models (mPLMs) have been shown to encode strong language-specific signals, which are not explicitly provided during pretraining. It remains an open question whether it is feasible to employ mPLMs to measure language similarity, and subsequently use the similarity results to select source languages for boosting cross-lingual transfer. To investigate this, we propose mPLM-Sim, a new language similarity measure that induces the similarities across languages from mPLMs using multi-parallel corpora. Our study shows that mPLM-Sim exhibits moderately high correlations with linguistic similarity measures, such as lexicostatistics, genealogical language family, and geographical sprachbund. We also conduct a case study on languages with low correlation and observe that mPLM-Sim yields more accurate similarity results. Additionally, we find that similarity results vary across different mPLMs and different layers within an mPLM. We further investigate whether mPLM-Sim is effective for zero-shot cross-lingual transfer by conducting experiments on both low-level syntactic tasks and high-level semantic tasks. The experimental results demonstrate that mPLM-Sim is capable of selecting better source languages than linguistic measures, resulting in a 1%-2% improvement in zero-shot cross-lingual transfer performance.
The task of empathetic response generation aims to understand what feelings a speaker expresses on his/her experiences and then reply to the speaker appropriately. To solve the task, it is essential to model the content-emotion duality of a dialogue, which is composed of the content view (i.e., what personal experiences are described) and the emotion view (i.e., the feelings of the speaker on these experiences). To this end, we design a framework to model the Content-Emotion Duality (CEDual) via disentanglement for empathetic response generation. With disentanglement, we encode the dialogue history from both the content and emotion views, and then generate the empathetic response based on the disentangled representations, thereby both the content and emotion information of the dialogue history can be embedded in the generated response. The experiments on the benchmark dataset EMPATHETICDIALOGUES show that the CEDual model achieves state-of-the-art performance on both automatic and human metrics, and it also generates more empathetic responses than previous methods.
Empathetic response generation aims to comprehend the user emotion and then respond to it appropriately. Most existing works merely focus on what the emotion is and ignore how the emotion is evoked, thus weakening the capacity of the model to understand the emotional experience of the user for generating empathetic responses. To tackle this problem, we consider the emotional causality, namely, what feelings the user expresses (i.e., emotion) and why the user has such feelings (i.e., cause). Then, we propose a novel graph-based model with multi-hop reasoning to model the emotional causality of the empathetic conversation. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our model on EMPATHETICDIALOGUES in comparison with several competitive models.