Alert button
Picture for Lajos Hanzo

Lajos Hanzo

Alert button

Multi-objective Optimization of Space-Air-Ground Integrated Network Slicing Relying on a Pair of Central and Distributed Learning Algorithms

Sep 22, 2023
Guorong Zhou, Liqiang Zhao, Gan Zheng, Shenghui Song, Jiankang Zhang, Lajos Hanzo

As an attractive enabling technology for next-generation wireless communications, network slicing supports diverse customized services in the global space-air-ground integrated network (SAGIN) with diverse resource constraints. In this paper, we dynamically consider three typical classes of radio access network (RAN) slices, namely high-throughput slices, low-delay slices and wide-coverage slices, under the same underlying physical SAGIN. The throughput, the service delay and the coverage area of these three classes of RAN slices are jointly optimized in a non-scalar form by considering the distinct channel features and service advantages of the terrestrial, aerial and satellite components of SAGINs. A joint central and distributed multi-agent deep deterministic policy gradient (CDMADDPG) algorithm is proposed for solving the above problem to obtain the Pareto optimal solutions. The algorithm first determines the optimal virtual unmanned aerial vehicle (vUAV) positions and the inter-slice sub-channel and power sharing by relying on a centralized unit. Then it optimizes the intra-slice sub-channel and power allocation, and the virtual base station (vBS)/vUAV/virtual low earth orbit (vLEO) satellite deployment in support of three classes of slices by three separate distributed units. Simulation results verify that the proposed method approaches the Pareto-optimal exploitation of multiple RAN slices, and outperforms the benchmarkers.

* 19 pages, 14 figures, journal 
Viaarxiv icon

Toward Beamfocusing-Aided Near-Field Communications: Research Advances, Potential, and Challenges

Sep 17, 2023
Jiancheng An, Chau Yuen, Linglong Dai, Marco Di Renzo, Merouane Debbah, Lajos Hanzo

Next-generation mobile networks promise to support high throughput, massive connectivity, and improved energy efficiency. To achieve these ambitious goals, extremely large-scale antenna arrays (ELAAs) and terahertz communications constitute a pair of promising technologies. This will result in future wireless communications occurring in the near-field regions. To accurately portray the channel characteristics of near-field wireless propagation, spherical wavefront-based models are required and present both opportunities as well as challenges. Following the basics of near-field communications (NFC), we contrast it to conventional far-field communications. Moreover, we cover the key challenges of NFC, including its channel modeling and estimation, near-field beamfocusing, as well as hardware design. Our numerical results demonstrate the potential of NFC in improving the spatial multiplexing gain and positioning accuracy. Finally, a suite of open issues are identified for motivating future research.

* 8 pages, 5 figures, 1 table 
Viaarxiv icon

Massive Access of Static and Mobile Users via Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces: Protocol Design and Performance Analysis

Sep 12, 2023
Xuelin Cao, Bo Yang, Chongwen Huang, George C. Alexandropoulos, Chau Yuen, Zhu Han, H. Vincent Poor, Lajos Hanzo

The envisioned wireless networks of the future entail the provisioning of massive numbers of connections, heterogeneous data traffic, ultra-high spectral efficiency, and low latency services. This vision is spurring research activities focused on defining a next generation multiple access (NGMA) protocol that can accommodate massive numbers of users in different resource blocks, thereby, achieving higher spectral efficiency and increased connectivity compared to conventional multiple access schemes. In this article, we present a multiple access scheme for NGMA in wireless communication systems assisted by multiple reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RISs). In this regard, considering the practical scenario of static users operating together with mobile ones, we first study the interplay of the design of NGMA schemes and RIS phase configuration in terms of efficiency and complexity. Based on this, we then propose a multiple access framework for RIS-assisted communication systems, and we also design a medium access control (MAC) protocol incorporating RISs. In addition, we give a detailed performance analysis of the designed RIS-assisted MAC protocol. Our extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed MAC design outperforms the benchmarks in terms of system throughput and access fairness, and also reveal a trade-off relationship between the system throughput and fairness.

Viaarxiv icon

Space-Time Shift Keying Aided OTFS Modulation for Orthogonal Multiple Access

Sep 07, 2023
Zeping Sui, Hongming Zhang, Sumei Sun, Lie-Liang Yang, Lajos Hanzo

Space-time shift keying-aided orthogonal time frequency space modulation-based multiple access (STSK-OTFS-MA) is proposed for reliable uplink transmission in high-Doppler scenarios. As a beneficial feature of our STSK-OTFS-MA system, extra information bits are mapped onto the indices of the active dispersion matrices, which allows the system to enjoy the joint benefits of both STSK and OTFS signalling. Due to the fact that both the time-, space- and DD-domain degrees of freedom are jointly exploited, our STSK-OTFS-MA achieves increased diversity and coding gains. To mitigate the potentially excessive detection complexity, the sparse structure of the equivalent transmitted symbol vector is exploited, resulting in a pair of low-complexity near-maximum likelihood (ML) multiuser detection algorithms. Explicitly, we conceive a progressive residual check-based greedy detector (PRCGD) and an iterative reduced-space check-based detector (IRCD). Then, we derive both the unconditional single-user pairwise error probability (SU-UPEP) and a tight bit error ratio (BER) union-bound for our single-user STSK-OTFS-MA system employing the ML detector. Furthermore, the discrete-input continuous-output memoryless channel (DCMC) capacity of the proposed system is derived. The optimal dispersion matrices (DMs) are designed based on the maximum attainable diversity and coding gain metrics. Finally, it is demonstrated that our STSK-OTFS-MA system achieves both a lower BER and a higher DCMC capacity than its conventional spatial modulation (SM) {and its orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) counterparts. As a benefit, the proposed system strikes a compelling BER vs. system complexity as well as BER vs. detection complexity trade-offs.

* Accepted by IEEE Transactions on Communications 
Viaarxiv icon

Energy-efficient Time-modulated Beam-forming for Joint Communication-Radar Systems

Aug 07, 2023
Chengzhao Shan, Jiayan Zhang, Yongkui Ma, Xuejun Sha, Honglin Zhao, Jiankang Zhang, Lajos Hanzo

Figure 1 for Energy-efficient Time-modulated Beam-forming for Joint Communication-Radar Systems
Figure 2 for Energy-efficient Time-modulated Beam-forming for Joint Communication-Radar Systems
Figure 3 for Energy-efficient Time-modulated Beam-forming for Joint Communication-Radar Systems
Figure 4 for Energy-efficient Time-modulated Beam-forming for Joint Communication-Radar Systems

To alleviate the shortage of spectral resources as well as to reduce the weight, volume, and power consumption of wireless systems, joint communication-radar (JCR) systems have become a focus of interest in both civil and military fields. JCR systems based on time-modulated arrays (TMAs) constitute an attractive solution as a benefit of their high degree of beam steering freedom, low cost, and high accuracy. However, their sideband radiation results in energy loss, which is an inherent drawback. Hence the energy-efficiency optimization of TMA-based JCR systems is of salient importance, but most of the existing TMA energy-efficiency optimization methods do not apply to JCR systems. To circumvent their problems, a single-sideband structure is designed for flexibly reconfigurable energy-efficient TMA beam steering. First, some preliminaries on single-sideband TMAs are introduced. Then, a closed-form expression is derived for characterizing the energy efficiency. Finally, the theoretical results are validated by simulations.

* 14 pages, 9 figures, Journal 
Viaarxiv icon

Multi-Carrier Modulation: An Evolution from Time-Frequency Domain to Delay-Doppler Domain

Aug 03, 2023
Hai Lin, Jinhong Yuan, Wei Yu, Jingxian Wu, Lajos Hanzo

Figure 1 for Multi-Carrier Modulation: An Evolution from Time-Frequency Domain to Delay-Doppler Domain
Figure 2 for Multi-Carrier Modulation: An Evolution from Time-Frequency Domain to Delay-Doppler Domain
Figure 3 for Multi-Carrier Modulation: An Evolution from Time-Frequency Domain to Delay-Doppler Domain
Figure 4 for Multi-Carrier Modulation: An Evolution from Time-Frequency Domain to Delay-Doppler Domain

The recently proposed orthogonal delay-Doppler division multiplexing (ODDM) modulation, which is based on the new delay-Doppler (DD) domain orthogonal pulse (DDOP), is studied. A substantial benefit of the DDOP-based ODDM or general delay-Doppler domain multi-carrier (DDMC) modulation is that it achieves orthogonality with respect to the fine time and frequency resolutions of the DD domain. We first revisit the family of wireless channel models conceived for linear time-varying (LTV) channels, and then review the conventional multi-carrier (MC) modulation schemes and their design guidelines for both linear time-invariant (LTI) and LTV channels. Then we discuss the time-varying property of the LTV channels' DD domain impulse response and propose an impulse function based transmission strategy for equivalent sampled DD domain (ESDD) channels. Next, we take an in-depth look into the DDOP and the corresponding ODDM modulation to unveil its unique input-output relation for transmission over ESDD channels. Then, we point out that the conventional MC modulation design guidelines based on the Wely-Heisenberg (WH) frame theory can be relaxed without compromising its orthogonality or without violating the WH frame theory. More specifically, for a communication system having given bandwidth and duration, MC modulation signals can be designed based on a WH subset associated with sufficient (bi)orthogonality, which governs the (bi)orthogonality of the MC signal within the bandwidth and duration. This novel design guideline could potentially open up opportunities for developing future waveforms required by new applications such as communication systems associated with high delay and/or Doppler shifts, as well as integrated sensing and communications, etc.

* This paper has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. The supplementary material of this work will be posted at 
Viaarxiv icon

Near-Field Communications: A Degree-of-Freedom Perspective

Aug 02, 2023
Chongjun Ouyang, Yuanwei Liu, Xingqi Zhang, Lajos Hanzo

Figure 1 for Near-Field Communications: A Degree-of-Freedom Perspective
Figure 2 for Near-Field Communications: A Degree-of-Freedom Perspective
Figure 3 for Near-Field Communications: A Degree-of-Freedom Perspective
Figure 4 for Near-Field Communications: A Degree-of-Freedom Perspective

Multiple-antenna technologies are advancing towards large-scale aperture sizes and extremely high frequencies, leading to the emergence of near-field communications (NFC) in future wireless systems. To this context, we investigate the degree of freedom (DoF) in near-field multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. We consider both spatially discrete (SPD) antennas and continuous aperture (CAP) antennas. Additionally, we explore three important DoF-related performance metrics and examine their relationships with the classic DoF. Numerical results demonstrate the benefits of NFC over far-field communications (FFC) in terms of providing increased spatial DoFs. We also identify promising research directions for NFC from a DoF perspective.

* 8 pages 
Viaarxiv icon

D-STAR: Dual Simultaneously Transmitting and Reflecting Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces for Joint Uplink/Downlink Transmission

Jul 30, 2023
Li-Hsiang Shen, Po-Chen Wu, Chia-Jou Ku, Yu-Ting Li, Kai-Ten Feng, Yuanwei Liu, Lajos Hanzo

The joint uplink/downlink (JUD) design of simultaneously transmitting and reflecting reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (STAR-RIS) is conceived in support of both uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) users. Furthermore, the dual STAR-RISs (D-STAR) concept is conceived as a promising architecture for 360-degree full-plane service coverage including users located between the base station (BS) and the D-STAR and beyond. The corresponding regions are termed as primary (P) and secondary (S) regions. The primary STAR-RIS (STAR-P) plays an important role in terms of tackling the P-region inter-user interference, the self-interference (SI) from the BS and from the reflective as well as refractive UL users imposed on the DL receiver. By contrast, the secondary STAR-RIS (STAR-S) aims for mitigating the S-region interferences. The non-linear and non-convex rate-maximization problem formulated is solved by alternating optimization amongst the decomposed convex sub-problems of the BS beamformer, and the D-STAR amplitude as well as phase shift configurations. We also propose a D-STAR based active beamforming and passive STAR-RIS amplitude/phase (DBAP) optimization scheme to solve the respective sub-problems by Lagrange dual with Dinkelbach transformation, alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) with successive convex approximation (SCA), and penalty convex-concave procedure (PCCP). Our simulation results reveal that the proposed D-STAR architecture outperforms the conventional single RIS, single STAR-RIS, and half-duplex networks. The proposed DBAP in D-STAR outperforms the state-of-the-art solutions in the open literature.

* 30 pages, 10 figures 
Viaarxiv icon

Learning a Common Dictionary for CSI Feedback in FDD Massive MU-MIMO-OFDM Systems

Jul 29, 2023
Pavan Kumar Gadamsetty, K. V. S. Hari, Lajos Hanzo

Figure 1 for Learning a Common Dictionary for CSI Feedback in FDD Massive MU-MIMO-OFDM Systems
Figure 2 for Learning a Common Dictionary for CSI Feedback in FDD Massive MU-MIMO-OFDM Systems
Figure 3 for Learning a Common Dictionary for CSI Feedback in FDD Massive MU-MIMO-OFDM Systems
Figure 4 for Learning a Common Dictionary for CSI Feedback in FDD Massive MU-MIMO-OFDM Systems

In a transmit preprocessing aided frequency division duplex (FDD) massive multi-user (MU) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scheme assisted orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) system, it is required to feed back the frequency domain channel transfer function (FDCHTF) of each subcarrier at the user equipment (UE) to the base station (BS). The amount of channel state information (CSI) to be fed back to the BS increases linearly with the number of antennas and subcarriers, which may become excessive. Hence we propose a novel CSI feedback compression algorithm based on compressive sensing (CS) by designing a common dictionary (CD) to reduce the CSI feedback of existing algorithms. Most of the prior work on CSI feedback compression considered single-UE systems. Explicitly, we propose a common dictionary learning (CDL) framework for practical frequency-selective channels and design a CD suitable for both single-UE and multi-UE systems. A set of two methods is proposed. Specifically, the first one is the CDL-K singular value decomposition (KSVD) method, which uses the K-SVD algorithm. The second one is the CDL-orthogonal Procrustes (OP) method, which relies on solving the orthogonal Procrustes problem. The CD conceived for exploiting the spatial correlation of channels across all the subcarriers and UEs compresses the CSI at each UE, and {upon reception} reconstructs it at the BS. Our simulation results show that the proposed dictionary's estimated channel vectors have lower normalized mean-squared error (NMSE) than the traditional fixed Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) based dictionary. The CSI feedback is reduced by 50%, and the memory reduction at both the UE and BS starts from 50% and increases with the number of subcarriers.

Viaarxiv icon

Multi-Objective Optimisation of URLLC-Based Metaverse Services

Jul 25, 2023
Xinyu Gao, Wenqiang Yi, Yuanwei Liu, Lajos Hanzo

Figure 1 for Multi-Objective Optimisation of URLLC-Based Metaverse Services
Figure 2 for Multi-Objective Optimisation of URLLC-Based Metaverse Services
Figure 3 for Multi-Objective Optimisation of URLLC-Based Metaverse Services
Figure 4 for Multi-Objective Optimisation of URLLC-Based Metaverse Services

Metaverse aims for building a fully immersive virtual shared space, where the users are able to engage in various activities. To successfully deploy the service for each user, the Metaverse service provider and network service provider generally localise the user first and then support the communication between the base station (BS) and the user. A reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS) is capable of creating a reflected link between the BS and the user to enhance line-of-sight. Furthermore, the new key performance indicators (KPIs) in Metaverse, such as its energy-consumption-dependent total service cost and transmission latency, are often overlooked in ultra-reliable low latency communication (URLLC) designs, which have to be carefully considered in next-generation URLLC (xURLLC) regimes. In this paper, our design objective is to jointly optimise the transmit power, the RIS phase shifts, and the decoding error probability to simultaneously minimise the total service cost and transmission latency and approach the Pareto Front (PF). We conceive a twin-stage central controller, which aims for localising the users first and then supports the communication between the BS and users. In the first stage, we localise the Metaverse users, where the stochastic gradient descent (SGD) algorithm is invoked for accurate user localisation. In the second stage, a meta-learning-based position-dependent multi-objective soft actor and critic (MO-SAC) algorithm is proposed to approach the PF between the total service cost and transmission latency and to further optimise the latency-dependent reliability. Our numerical results demonstrate that ...

* Accepted by IEEE Transactions on Communications 
Viaarxiv icon