Existing text-to-image diffusion models struggle to synthesize realistic images given dense captions, where each text prompt provides a detailed description for a specific image region. To address this, we propose DenseDiffusion, a training-free method that adapts a pre-trained text-to-image model to handle such dense captions while offering control over the scene layout. We first analyze the relationship between generated images' layouts and the pre-trained model's intermediate attention maps. Next, we develop an attention modulation method that guides objects to appear in specific regions according to layout guidance. Without requiring additional fine-tuning or datasets, we improve image generation performance given dense captions regarding both automatic and human evaluation scores. In addition, we achieve similar-quality visual results with models specifically trained with layout conditions.
Large language models (LLMs) learn not only natural text generation abilities but also social biases against different demographic groups from real-world data. This poses a critical risk when deploying LLM-based applications. Existing research and resources are not readily applicable in South Korea due to the differences in language and culture, both of which significantly affect the biases and targeted demographic groups. This limitation requires localized social bias datasets to ensure the safe and effective deployment of LLMs. To this end, we present KO SB I, a new social bias dataset of 34k pairs of contexts and sentences in Korean covering 72 demographic groups in 15 categories. We find that through filtering-based moderation, social biases in generated content can be reduced by 16.47%p on average for HyperCLOVA (30B and 82B), and GPT-3.
The potential social harms that large language models pose, such as generating offensive content and reinforcing biases, are steeply rising. Existing works focus on coping with this concern while interacting with ill-intentioned users, such as those who explicitly make hate speech or elicit harmful responses. However, discussions on sensitive issues can become toxic even if the users are well-intentioned. For safer models in such scenarios, we present the Sensitive Questions and Acceptable Response (SQuARe) dataset, a large-scale Korean dataset of 49k sensitive questions with 42k acceptable and 46k non-acceptable responses. The dataset was constructed leveraging HyperCLOVA in a human-in-the-loop manner based on real news headlines. Experiments show that acceptable response generation significantly improves for HyperCLOVA and GPT-3, demonstrating the efficacy of this dataset.
The deployment of large-scale generative models is often restricted by their potential risk of causing harm to users in unpredictable ways. We focus on the problem of black-box red teaming, where a red team generates test cases and interacts with the victim model to discover a diverse set of failures with limited query access. Existing red teaming methods construct test cases based on human supervision or language model (LM) and query all test cases in a brute-force manner without incorporating any information from past evaluations, resulting in a prohibitively large number of queries. To this end, we propose Bayesian red teaming (BRT), novel query-efficient black-box red teaming methods based on Bayesian optimization, which iteratively identify diverse positive test cases leading to model failures by utilizing the pre-defined user input pool and the past evaluations. Experimental results on various user input pools demonstrate that our method consistently finds a significantly larger number of diverse positive test cases under the limited query budget than the baseline methods. The source code is available at https://github.com/snu-mllab/Bayesian-Red-Teaming.
Token-based masked generative models are gaining popularity for their fast inference time with parallel decoding. While recent token-based approaches achieve competitive performance to diffusion-based models, their generation performance is still suboptimal as they sample multiple tokens simultaneously without considering the dependence among them. We empirically investigate this problem and propose a learnable sampling model, Text-Conditioned Token Selection (TCTS), to select optimal tokens via localized supervision with text information. TCTS improves not only the image quality but also the semantic alignment of the generated images with the given texts. To further improve the image quality, we introduce a cohesive sampling strategy, Frequency Adaptive Sampling (FAS), to each group of tokens divided according to the self-attention maps. We validate the efficacy of TCTS combined with FAS with various generative tasks, demonstrating that it significantly outperforms the baselines in image-text alignment and image quality. Our text-conditioned sampling framework further reduces the original inference time by more than 50% without modifying the original generative model.
Recent studies have proposed unified user modeling frameworks that leverage user behavior data from various applications. Many of them benefit from utilizing users' behavior sequences as plain texts, representing rich information in any domain or system without losing generality. Hence, a question arises: Can language modeling for user history corpus help improve recommender systems? While its versatile usability has been widely investigated in many domains, its applications to recommender systems still remain underexplored. We show that language modeling applied directly to task-specific user histories achieves excellent results on diverse recommendation tasks. Also, leveraging additional task-agnostic user histories delivers significant performance benefits. We further demonstrate that our approach can provide promising transfer learning capabilities for a broad spectrum of real-world recommender systems, even on unseen domains and services.
A Bayesian pseudocoreset is a small synthetic dataset for which the posterior over parameters approximates that of the original dataset. While promising, the scalability of Bayesian pseudocoresets is not yet validated in realistic problems such as image classification with deep neural networks. On the other hand, dataset distillation methods similarly construct a small dataset such that the optimization using the synthetic dataset converges to a solution with performance competitive with optimization using full data. Although dataset distillation has been empirically verified in large-scale settings, the framework is restricted to point estimates, and their adaptation to Bayesian inference has not been explored. This paper casts two representative dataset distillation algorithms as approximations to methods for constructing pseudocoresets by minimizing specific divergence measures: reverse KL divergence and Wasserstein distance. Furthermore, we provide a unifying view of such divergence measures in Bayesian pseudocoreset construction. Finally, we propose a novel Bayesian pseudocoreset algorithm based on minimizing forward KL divergence. Our empirical results demonstrate that the pseudocoresets constructed from these methods reflect the true posterior even in high-dimensional Bayesian inference problems.
There are growing interests in adapting large-scale language models using parameter-efficient fine-tuning methods. However, accelerating the model itself and achieving better inference efficiency through model compression has not been thoroughly explored yet. Model compression could provide the benefits of reducing memory footprints, enabling low-precision computations, and ultimately achieving cost-effective inference. To combine parameter-efficient adaptation and model compression, we propose AlphaTuning consisting of post-training quantization of the pre-trained language model and fine-tuning only some parts of quantized parameters for a target task. Specifically, AlphaTuning works by employing binary-coding quantization, which factorizes the full-precision parameters into binary parameters and a separate set of scaling factors. During the adaptation phase, the binary values are frozen for all tasks, while the scaling factors are fine-tuned for the downstream task. We demonstrate that AlphaTuning, when applied to GPT-2 and OPT, performs competitively with full fine-tuning on a variety of downstream tasks while achieving >10x compression ratio under 4-bit quantization and >1,000x reduction in the number of trainable parameters.
While Transformers have had significant success in paragraph generation, they treat sentences as linear sequences of tokens and often neglect their hierarchical information. Prior work has shown that decomposing the levels of granularity~(e.g., word, phrase, or sentence) for input tokens has produced substantial improvements, suggesting the possibility of enhancing Transformers via more fine-grained modeling of granularity. In this work, we propose a continuous decomposition of granularity for neural paraphrase generation (C-DNPG). In order to efficiently incorporate granularity into sentence encoding, C-DNPG introduces a granularity-aware attention (GA-Attention) mechanism which extends the multi-head self-attention with: 1) a granularity head that automatically infers the hierarchical structure of a sentence by neurally estimating the granularity level of each input token; and 2) two novel attention masks, namely, granularity resonance and granularity scope, to efficiently encode granularity into attention. Experiments on two benchmarks, including Quora question pairs and Twitter URLs have shown that C-DNPG outperforms baseline models by a remarkable margin and achieves state-of-the-art results in terms of many metrics. Qualitative analysis reveals that C-DNPG indeed captures fine-grained levels of granularity with effectiveness.