This paper presents a novel context compression method for Transformer language models in online scenarios such as ChatGPT, where the context continually expands. As the context lengthens, the attention process requires more memory and computational resources, which in turn reduces the throughput of the language model. To this end, we propose a compressed context memory system that continually compresses the growing context into a compact memory space. The compression process simply involves integrating a lightweight conditional LoRA into the language model's forward pass during inference. Based on the compressed context memory, the language model can perform inference with reduced memory and attention operations. Through evaluations on conversation, personalization, and multi-task learning, we demonstrate that our approach achieves the performance level of a full context model with $5\times$ smaller context memory space. Codes are available at https://github.com/snu-mllab/context-memory.
Discovering achievements with a hierarchical structure on procedurally generated environments poses a significant challenge. This requires agents to possess a broad range of abilities, including generalization and long-term reasoning. Many prior methods are built upon model-based or hierarchical approaches, with the belief that an explicit module for long-term planning would be beneficial for learning hierarchical achievements. However, these methods require an excessive amount of environment interactions or large model sizes, limiting their practicality. In this work, we identify that proximal policy optimization (PPO), a simple and versatile model-free algorithm, outperforms the prior methods with recent implementation practices. Moreover, we find that the PPO agent can predict the next achievement to be unlocked to some extent, though with low confidence. Based on this observation, we propose a novel contrastive learning method, called achievement distillation, that strengthens the agent's capability to predict the next achievement. Our method exhibits a strong capacity for discovering hierarchical achievements and shows state-of-the-art performance on the challenging Crafter environment using fewer model parameters in a sample-efficient regime.
The deployment of large-scale generative models is often restricted by their potential risk of causing harm to users in unpredictable ways. We focus on the problem of black-box red teaming, where a red team generates test cases and interacts with the victim model to discover a diverse set of failures with limited query access. Existing red teaming methods construct test cases based on human supervision or language model (LM) and query all test cases in a brute-force manner without incorporating any information from past evaluations, resulting in a prohibitively large number of queries. To this end, we propose Bayesian red teaming (BRT), novel query-efficient black-box red teaming methods based on Bayesian optimization, which iteratively identify diverse positive test cases leading to model failures by utilizing the pre-defined user input pool and the past evaluations. Experimental results on various user input pools demonstrate that our method consistently finds a significantly larger number of diverse positive test cases under the limited query budget than the baseline methods. The source code is available at https://github.com/snu-mllab/Bayesian-Red-Teaming.
Offline reinforcement learning has developed rapidly over the recent years, but estimating the actual performance of offline policies still remains a challenge. We propose a scoring metric for offline policies that highly correlates with actual policy performance and can be directly used for offline policy optimization in a supervised manner. To achieve this, we leverage the contrastive learning framework to design a scoring metric that gives high scores to policies that imitate the actions yielding relatively high returns while avoiding those yielding relatively low returns. Our experiments show that 1) our scoring metric is able to more accurately rank offline policies and 2) the policies optimized using our metric show high performance on various offline reinforcement learning benchmarks. Notably, our algorithm has a much lower network capacity requirement for the policy network compared to other supervised learning-based methods and also does not need any additional networks such as a Q-network.
Diagnosing and cleaning datasets are crucial for building robust machine learning systems. However, identifying problems within large-scale datasets with real-world distributions is difficult due to the presence of complex issues, such as label errors or under-representation of certain types. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for identifying problematic data by utilizing a largely ignored source of information: a relational structure of data in the feature-embedded space. We develop an efficient algorithm for detecting label errors and outlier data points based on the relational graph structure of the dataset. We further introduce a visualization tool for contextualizing data points, which can serve as an effective tool for interactively diagnosing datasets. We evaluate label error and out-of-distribution detection performances on large-scale image and language domain tasks, including ImageNet and GLUE benchmarks, and demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for debugging datasets and building robust machine learning systems.
Recent works on neural network pruning advocate that reducing the depth of the network is more effective in reducing run-time memory usage and accelerating inference latency than reducing the width of the network through channel pruning. In this regard, some recent works propose depth compression algorithms that merge convolution layers. However, the existing algorithms have a constricted search space and rely on human-engineered heuristics. In this paper, we propose a novel depth compression algorithm which targets general convolution operations. We propose a subset selection problem that replaces inefficient activation layers with identity functions and optimally merges consecutive convolution operations into shallow equivalent convolution operations for efficient end-to-end inference latency. Since the proposed subset selection problem is NP-hard, we formulate a surrogate optimization problem that can be solved exactly via two-stage dynamic programming within a few seconds. We evaluate our methods and baselines by TensorRT for a fair inference latency comparison. Our method outperforms the baseline method with higher accuracy and faster inference speed in MobileNetV2 on the ImageNet dataset. Specifically, we achieve $1.61\times$speed-up with only $0.62$\%p accuracy drop in MobileNetV2-1.4 on the ImageNet.
We focus on the problem of training RL agents on multiple training environments to improve observational generalization performance. In prior methods, policy and value networks are separately optimized using a disjoint network architecture to avoid interference and obtain a more accurate value function. We identify that the value network in the multiple-environment setting is more challenging to optimize and prone to overfitting training data than in the conventional single-environment setting. In addition, we find that appropriate regularization of the value network is required for better training and test performance. To this end, we propose Delayed-Critic Policy Gradient (DCPG), which implicitly penalizes the value estimates by optimizing the value network less frequently with more training data than the policy network, which can be implemented using a shared network architecture. Furthermore, we introduce a simple self-supervised task that learns the forward and inverse dynamics of environments using a single discriminator, which can be jointly optimized with the value network. Our proposed algorithms significantly improve observational generalization performance and sample efficiency in the Procgen Benchmark.
We focus on the problem of adversarial attacks against models on discrete sequential data in the black-box setting where the attacker aims to craft adversarial examples with limited query access to the victim model. Existing black-box attacks, mostly based on greedy algorithms, find adversarial examples using pre-computed key positions to perturb, which severely limits the search space and might result in suboptimal solutions. To this end, we propose a query-efficient black-box attack using Bayesian optimization, which dynamically computes important positions using an automatic relevance determination (ARD) categorical kernel. We introduce block decomposition and history subsampling techniques to improve the scalability of Bayesian optimization when an input sequence becomes long. Moreover, we develop a post-optimization algorithm that finds adversarial examples with smaller perturbation size. Experiments on natural language and protein classification tasks demonstrate that our method consistently achieves higher attack success rate with significant reduction in query count and modification rate compared to the previous state-of-the-art methods.
The great success of machine learning with massive amounts of data comes at a price of huge computation costs and storage for training and tuning. Recent studies on dataset condensation attempt to reduce the dependence on such massive data by synthesizing a compact training dataset. However, the existing approaches have fundamental limitations in optimization due to the limited representability of synthetic datasets without considering any data regularity characteristics. To this end, we propose a novel condensation framework that generates multiple synthetic data with a limited storage budget via efficient parameterization considering data regularity. We further analyze the shortcomings of the existing gradient matching-based condensation methods and develop an effective optimization technique for improving the condensation of training data information. We propose a unified algorithm that drastically improves the quality of condensed data against the current state-of-the-art on CIFAR-10, ImageNet, and Speech Commands.