Deep learning research has uncovered the phenomenon of benign overfitting for over-parameterized statistical models, which has drawn significant theoretical interest in recent years. Given its simplicity and practicality, the ordinary least squares (OLS) interpolator has become essential to gain foundational insights into this phenomenon. While properties of OLS are well established in classical settings, its behavior in high-dimensional settings is less explored (unlike for ridge or lasso regression) though significant progress has been made of late. We contribute to this growing literature by providing fundamental algebraic and statistical results for the minimum $\ell_2$-norm OLS interpolator. In particular, we provide high-dimensional algebraic equivalents of (i) the leave-$k$-out residual formula, (ii) Cochran's formula, and (iii) the Frisch-Waugh-Lovell theorem. These results aid in understanding the OLS interpolator's ability to generalize and have substantive implications for causal inference. Additionally, under the Gauss-Markov model, we present statistical results such as a high-dimensional extension of the Gauss-Markov theorem and an analysis of variance estimation under homoskedastic errors. To substantiate our theoretical contributions, we conduct simulation studies that further explore the stochastic properties of the OLS interpolator.
Medical data often exhibits long-tail distributions with heavy class imbalance, which naturally leads to difficulty in classifying the minority classes (i.e., boundary regions or rare objects). Recent work has significantly improved semi-supervised medical image segmentation in long-tailed scenarios by equipping them with unsupervised contrastive criteria. However, it remains unclear how well they will perform in the labeled portion of data where class distribution is also highly imbalanced. In this work, we present ACTION++, an improved contrastive learning framework with adaptive anatomical contrast for semi-supervised medical segmentation. Specifically, we propose an adaptive supervised contrastive loss, where we first compute the optimal locations of class centers uniformly distributed on the embedding space (i.e., off-line), and then perform online contrastive matching training by encouraging different class features to adaptively match these distinct and uniformly distributed class centers. Moreover, we argue that blindly adopting a constant temperature $\tau$ in the contrastive loss on long-tailed medical data is not optimal, and propose to use a dynamic $\tau$ via a simple cosine schedule to yield better separation between majority and minority classes. Empirically, we evaluate ACTION++ on ACDC and LA benchmarks and show that it achieves state-of-the-art across two semi-supervised settings. Theoretically, we analyze the performance of adaptive anatomical contrast and confirm its superiority in label efficiency.
As the size $n$ of datasets become massive, many commonly-used clustering algorithms (for example, $k$-means or hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC) require prohibitive computational cost and memory. In this paper, we propose a solution to these clustering problems by extending threshold clustering (TC) to problems of instance selection. TC is a recently developed clustering algorithm designed to partition data into many small clusters in linearithmic time (on average). Our proposed clustering method is as follows. First, TC is performed and clusters are reduced into single "prototype" points. Then, TC is applied repeatedly on these prototype points until sufficient data reduction has been obtained. Finally, a more sophisticated clustering algorithm is applied to the reduced prototype points, thereby obtaining a clustering on all $n$ data points. This entire procedure for clustering is called iterative hybridized threshold clustering (IHTC). Through simulation results and by applying our methodology on several real datasets, we show that IHTC combined with $k$-means or HAC substantially reduces the run time and memory usage of the original clustering algorithms while still preserving their performance. Additionally, IHTC helps prevent singular data points from being overfit by clustering algorithms.
We develop new algorithms for estimating heterogeneous treatment effects, combining recent developments in transfer learning for neural networks with insights from the causal inference literature. By taking advantage of transfer learning, we are able to efficiently use different data sources that are related to the same underlying causal mechanisms. We compare our algorithms with those in the extant literature using extensive simulation studies based on large-scale voter persuasion experiments and the MNIST database. Our methods can perform an order of magnitude better than existing benchmarks while using a fraction of the data.