Verifiability is a core content policy of Wikipedia: claims that are likely to be challenged need to be backed by citations. There are millions of articles available online and thousands of new articles are released each month. For this reason, finding relevant sources is a difficult task: many claims do not have any references that support them. Furthermore, even existing citations might not support a given claim or become obsolete once the original source is updated or deleted. Hence, maintaining and improving the quality of Wikipedia references is an important challenge and there is a pressing need for better tools to assist humans in this effort. Here, we show that the process of improving references can be tackled with the help of artificial intelligence (AI). We develop a neural network based system, called Side, to identify Wikipedia citations that are unlikely to support their claims, and subsequently recommend better ones from the web. We train this model on existing Wikipedia references, therefore learning from the contributions and combined wisdom of thousands of Wikipedia editors. Using crowd-sourcing, we observe that for the top 10% most likely citations to be tagged as unverifiable by our system, humans prefer our system's suggested alternatives compared to the originally cited reference 70% of the time. To validate the applicability of our system, we built a demo to engage with the English-speaking Wikipedia community and find that Side's first citation recommendation collects over 60% more preferences than existing Wikipedia citations for the same top 10% most likely unverifiable claims according to Side. Our results indicate that an AI-based system could be used, in tandem with humans, to improve the verifiability of Wikipedia. More generally, we hope that our work can be used to assist fact checking efforts and increase the general trustworthiness of information online.
Contrastive Predictive Coding (CPC), based on predicting future segments of speech based on past segments is emerging as a powerful algorithm for representation learning of speech signal. However, it still under-performs other methods on unsupervised evaluation benchmarks. Here, we introduce WavAugment, a time-domain data augmentation library and find that applying augmentation in the past is generally more efficient and yields better performances than other methods. We find that a combination of pitch modification, additive noise and reverberation substantially increase the performance of CPC (relative improvement of 18-22%), beating the reference Libri-light results with 600 times less data. Using an out-of-domain dataset, time-domain data augmentation can push CPC to be on par with the state of the art on the Zero Speech Benchmark 2017. We also show that time-domain data augmentation consistently improves downstream limited-supervision phoneme classification tasks by a factor of 12-15% relative.
Cross-lingual and multi-lingual training of Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) has been extensively investigated in the supervised setting. This assumes the existence of a parallel corpus of speech and orthographic transcriptions. Recently, contrastive predictive coding (CPC) algorithms have been proposed to pretrain ASR systems with unlabelled data. In this work, we investigate whether unsupervised pretraining transfers well across languages. We show that a slight modification of the CPC pretraining extracts features that transfer well to other languages, being on par or even outperforming supervised pretraining. This shows the potential of unsupervised methods for languages with few linguistic resources.
We introduce a new collection of spoken English audio suitable for training speech recognition systems under limited or no supervision. It is derived from open-source audio books from the LibriVox project. It contains over 60K hours of audio, which is, to our knowledge, the largest freely-available corpus of speech. The audio has been segmented using voice activity detection and is tagged with SNR, speaker ID and genre descriptions. Additionally, we provide baseline systems and evaluation metrics working under three settings: (1) the zero resource/unsupervised setting (ABX), (2) the semi-supervised setting (PER, CER) and (3) the distant supervision setting (WER). Settings (2) and (3) use limited textual resources (10 minutes to 10 hours) aligned with the speech. Setting (3) uses large amounts of unaligned text. They are evaluated on the standard LibriSpeech dev and test sets for comparison with the supervised state-of-the-art.
The evaluation of text simplification (TS) systems remains an open challenge. As the task has common points with machine translation (MT), TS is often evaluated using MT metrics such as BLEU. However, such metrics require high quality reference data, which is rarely available for TS. TS has the advantage over MT of being a monolingual task, which allows for direct comparisons to be made between the simplified text and its original version. In this paper, we compare multiple approaches to reference-less quality estimation of sentence-level text simplification systems, based on the dataset used for the QATS 2016 shared task. We distinguish three different dimensions: gram-maticality, meaning preservation and simplicity. We show that n-gram-based MT metrics such as BLEU and METEOR correlate the most with human judgment of grammaticality and meaning preservation, whereas simplicity is best evaluated by basic length-based metrics.
Current dialogue systems are not very engaging for users, especially when trained end-to-end without relying on proactive reengaging scripted strategies. Zhang et al. (2018) showed that the engagement level of end-to-end dialogue models increases when conditioning them on text personas providing some personalized back-story to the model. However, the dataset used in Zhang et al. (2018) is synthetic and of limited size as it contains around 1k different personas. In this paper we introduce a new dataset providing 5 million personas and 700 million persona-based dialogues. Our experiments show that, at this scale, training using personas still improves the performance of end-to-end systems. In addition, we show that other tasks benefit from the wide coverage of our dataset by fine-tuning our model on the data from Zhang et al. (2018) and achieving state-of-the-art results.
This paper aims at improving how machines can answer questions directly from text, with the focus of having models that can answer correctly multiple types of questions and from various types of texts, documents or even from large collections of them. To that end, we introduce the Weaver model that uses a new way to relate a question to a textual context by weaving layers of recurrent networks, with the goal of making as few assumptions as possible as to how the information from both question and context should be combined to form the answer. We show empirically on six datasets that Weaver performs well in multiple conditions. For instance, it produces solid results on the very popular SQuAD dataset (Rajpurkar et al., 2016), solves almost all bAbI tasks (Weston et al., 2015) and greatly outperforms state-of-the-art methods for open domain question answering from text (Chen et al., 2017).