Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a novel and effective screening tool for ophthalmic examination. Since collecting OCT images is relatively more expensive than fundus photographs, existing methods use multi-modal learning to complement limited OCT data with additional context from fundus images. However, the multi-modal framework requires eye-paired datasets of both modalities, which is impractical for clinical use. To address this problem, we propose a novel fundus-enhanced disease-aware distillation model (FDDM), for retinal disease classification from OCT images. Our framework enhances the OCT model during training by utilizing unpaired fundus images and does not require the use of fundus images during testing, which greatly improves the practicality and efficiency of our method for clinical use. Specifically, we propose a novel class prototype matching to distill disease-related information from the fundus model to the OCT model and a novel class similarity alignment to enforce consistency between disease distribution of both modalities. Experimental results show that our proposed approach outperforms single-modal, multi-modal, and state-of-the-art distillation methods for retinal disease classification. Code is available at https://github.com/xmed-lab/FDDM.
Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) has become increasingly vital in the clinical screening of fundus diseases due to its ability to capture accurate 3D imaging of blood vessels in a non-contact scanning manner. However, the acquisition of OCTA images remains challenging due to the requirement of exclusive sensors and expensive devices. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, TransPro, that translates 3D Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images into exclusive 3D OCTA images using an image translation pattern. Our main objective is to address two issues in existing image translation baselines, namely, the aimlessness in the translation process and incompleteness of the translated object. The former refers to the overall quality of the translated OCTA images being satisfactory, but the retinal vascular quality being low. The latter refers to incomplete objects in translated OCTA images due to the lack of global contexts. TransPro merges a 2D retinal vascular segmentation model and a 2D OCTA image translation model into a 3D image translation baseline for the 2D projection map projected by the translated OCTA images. The 2D retinal vascular segmentation model can improve attention to the retinal vascular, while the 2D OCTA image translation model introduces beneficial heuristic contextual information. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets demonstrate that TransPro can consistently outperform existing approaches with minimal computational overhead during training and none during testing.
Color fundus photography and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) are the two most cost-effective tools for glaucoma screening. Both two modalities of images have prominent biomarkers to indicate glaucoma suspected. Clinically, it is often recommended to take both of the screenings for a more accurate and reliable diagnosis. However, although numerous algorithms are proposed based on fundus images or OCT volumes in computer-aided diagnosis, there are still few methods leveraging both of the modalities for the glaucoma assessment. Inspired by the success of Retinal Fundus Glaucoma Challenge (REFUGE) we held previously, we set up the Glaucoma grAding from Multi-Modality imAges (GAMMA) Challenge to encourage the development of fundus \& OCT-based glaucoma grading. The primary task of the challenge is to grade glaucoma from both the 2D fundus images and 3D OCT scanning volumes. As part of GAMMA, we have publicly released a glaucoma annotated dataset with both 2D fundus color photography and 3D OCT volumes, which is the first multi-modality dataset for glaucoma grading. In addition, an evaluation framework is also established to evaluate the performance of the submitted methods. During the challenge, 1272 results were submitted, and finally, top-10 teams were selected to the final stage. We analysis their results and summarize their methods in the paper. Since all these teams submitted their source code in the challenge, a detailed ablation study is also conducted to verify the effectiveness of the particular modules proposed. We find many of the proposed techniques are practical for the clinical diagnosis of glaucoma. As the first in-depth study of fundus \& OCT multi-modality glaucoma grading, we believe the GAMMA Challenge will be an essential starting point for future research.