The extensive adoption of Self-supervised learning (SSL) has led to an increased security threat from backdoor attacks. While existing research has mainly focused on backdoor attacks in image classification, there has been limited exploration into their implications for object detection. In this work, we propose the first backdoor attack designed for object detection tasks in SSL scenarios, termed Object Transform Attack (SSL-OTA). SSL-OTA employs a trigger capable of altering predictions of the target object to the desired category, encompassing two attacks: Data Poisoning Attack (NA) and Dual-Source Blending Attack (DSBA). NA conducts data poisoning during downstream fine-tuning of the object detector, while DSBA additionally injects backdoors into the pre-trained encoder. We establish appropriate metrics and conduct extensive experiments on benchmark datasets, demonstrating the effectiveness and utility of our proposed attack. Notably, both NA and DSBA achieve high attack success rates (ASR) at extremely low poisoning rates (0.5%). The results underscore the importance of considering backdoor threats in SSL-based object detection and contribute a novel perspective to the field.
Adversarial training has achieved substantial performance in defending image retrieval systems against adversarial examples. However, existing studies still suffer from two major limitations: model collapse and weak adversary. This paper addresses these two limitations by proposing collapse-oriented (COLO) adversarial training with triplet decoupling (TRIDE). Specifically, COLO prevents model collapse by temporally orienting the perturbation update direction with a new collapse metric, while TRIDE yields a strong adversary by spatially decoupling the update targets of perturbation into the anchor and the two candidates of a triplet. Experimental results demonstrate that our COLO-TRIDE outperforms the current state of the art by 7% on average over 10 robustness metrics and across 3 popular datasets. In addition, we identify the fairness limitations of commonly used robustness metrics in image retrieval and propose a new metric for more meaningful robustness evaluation. Codes will be made publicly available on GitHub.
Transfer-based adversarial attacks raise a severe threat to real-world deep learning systems since they do not require access to target models. Adversarial training (AT), which is recognized as the strongest defense against white-box attacks, has also guaranteed high robustness to (black-box) transfer-based attacks. However, AT suffers from heavy computational overhead since it optimizes the adversarial examples during the whole training process. In this paper, we demonstrate that such heavy optimization is not necessary for AT against transfer-based attacks. Instead, a one-shot adversarial augmentation prior to training is sufficient, and we name this new defense paradigm Data-centric Robust Learning (DRL). Our experimental results show that DRL outperforms widely-used AT techniques (e.g., PGD-AT, TRADES, EAT, and FAT) in terms of black-box robustness and even surpasses the top-1 defense on RobustBench when combined with diverse data augmentations and loss regularizations. We also identify other benefits of DRL, for instance, the model generalization capability and robust fairness.
Face forgery techniques have emerged as a forefront concern, and numerous detection approaches have been proposed to address this challenge. However, existing methods predominantly concentrate on single-face manipulation detection, leaving the more intricate and realistic realm of multi-face forgeries relatively unexplored. This paper proposes a novel framework explicitly tailored for multi-face forgery detection,filling a critical gap in the current research. The framework mainly involves two modules:(i) a facial relationships learning module, which generates distinguishable local features for each face within images,(ii) a global feature aggregation module that leverages the mutual constraints between global and local information to enhance forgery detection accuracy.Our experimental results on two publicly available multi-face forgery datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves state-of-the-art performance in multi-face forgery detection scenarios.
Within the realm of computer vision, self-supervised learning (SSL) pertains to training pre-trained image encoders utilizing a substantial quantity of unlabeled images. Pre-trained image encoders can serve as feature extractors, facilitating the construction of downstream classifiers for various tasks. However, the use of SSL has led to an increase in security research related to various backdoor attacks. Currently, the trigger patterns used in backdoor attacks on SSL are mostly visible or static (sample-agnostic), making backdoors less covert and significantly affecting the attack performance. In this work, we propose GhostEncoder, the first dynamic invisible backdoor attack on SSL. Unlike existing backdoor attacks on SSL, which use visible or static trigger patterns, GhostEncoder utilizes image steganography techniques to encode hidden information into benign images and generate backdoor samples. We then fine-tune the pre-trained image encoder on a manipulation dataset to inject the backdoor, enabling downstream classifiers built upon the backdoored encoder to inherit the backdoor behavior for target downstream tasks. We evaluate GhostEncoder on three downstream tasks and results demonstrate that GhostEncoder provides practical stealthiness on images and deceives the victim model with a high attack success rate without compromising its utility. Furthermore, GhostEncoder withstands state-of-the-art defenses, including STRIP, STRIP-Cl, and SSL-Cleanse.
Self-supervised learning (SSL), utilizing unlabeled datasets for training powerful encoders, has achieved significant success recently. These encoders serve as feature extractors for downstream tasks, requiring substantial resources. However, the challenge of protecting the intellectual property of encoder trainers and ensuring the trustworthiness of deployed encoders remains a significant gap in SSL. Moreover, recent researches highlight threats to pre-trained encoders, such as backdoor and adversarial attacks. To address these gaps, we propose SSL-Auth, the first authentication framework designed specifically for pre-trained encoders. In particular, SSL-Auth utilizes selected key samples as watermark information and trains a verification network to reconstruct the watermark information, thereby verifying the integrity of the encoder without compromising model performance. By comparing the reconstruction results of the key samples, malicious alterations can be detected, as modified encoders won't mimic the original reconstruction. Comprehensive evaluations on various encoders and diverse downstream tasks demonstrate the effectiveness and fragility of our proposed SSL-Auth.
Adversarial training (AT) is widely considered the state-of-the-art technique for improving the robustness of deep neural networks (DNNs) against adversarial examples (AE). Nevertheless, recent studies have revealed that adversarially trained models are prone to unfairness problems, restricting their applicability. In this paper, we empirically observe that this limitation may be attributed to serious adversarial confidence overfitting, i.e., certain adversarial examples with overconfidence. To alleviate this problem, we propose HAM, a straightforward yet effective framework via adaptive Hard Adversarial example Mining.HAM concentrates on mining hard adversarial examples while discarding the easy ones in an adaptive fashion. Specifically, HAM identifies hard AEs in terms of their step sizes needed to cross the decision boundary when calculating loss value. Besides, an early-dropping mechanism is incorporated to discard the easy examples at the initial stages of AE generation, resulting in efficient AT. Extensive experimental results on CIFAR-10, SVHN, and Imagenette demonstrate that HAM achieves significant improvement in robust fairness while reducing computational cost compared to several state-of-the-art adversarial training methods. The code will be made publicly available.
Taking full advantage of the excellent performance of StyleGAN, style transfer-based face swapping methods have been extensively investigated recently. However, these studies require separate face segmentation and blending modules for successful face swapping, and the fixed selection of the manipulated latent code in these works is reckless, thus degrading face swapping quality, generalizability, and practicability. This paper proposes a novel and end-to-end integrated framework for high resolution and attribute preservation face swapping via Adaptive Latent Representation Learning. Specifically, we first design a multi-task dual-space face encoder by sharing the underlying feature extraction network to simultaneously complete the facial region perception and face encoding. This encoder enables us to control the face pose and attribute individually, thus enhancing the face swapping quality. Next, we propose an adaptive latent codes swapping module to adaptively learn the mapping between the facial attributes and the latent codes and select effective latent codes for improved retention of facial attributes. Finally, the initial face swapping image generated by StyleGAN2 is blended with the facial region mask generated by our encoder to address the background blur problem. Our framework integrating facial perceiving and blending into the end-to-end training and testing process can achieve high realistic face-swapping on wild faces without segmentation masks. Experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our approach over state-of-the-art methods.
The security of artificial intelligence (AI) is an important research area towards safe, reliable, and trustworthy AI systems. To accelerate the research on AI security, the Artificial Intelligence Security Competition (AISC) was organized by the Zhongguancun Laboratory, China Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team, Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Tsinghua University, and RealAI as part of the Zhongguancun International Frontier Technology Innovation Competition (https://www.zgc-aisc.com/en). The competition consists of three tracks, including Deepfake Security Competition, Autonomous Driving Security Competition, and Face Recognition Security Competition. This report will introduce the competition rules of these three tracks and the solutions of top-ranking teams in each track.