Layout is essential for graphic design and poster generation. Recently, applying deep learning models to generate layouts has attracted increasing attention. This paper focuses on using the GAN-based model conditioned on image contents to generate advertising poster graphic layouts, which requires an advertising poster layout dataset with paired product images and graphic layouts. However, the paired images and layouts in the existing dataset are collected by inpainting and annotating posters, respectively. There exists a domain gap between inpainted posters (source domain data) and clean product images (target domain data). Therefore, this paper combines unsupervised domain adaption techniques to design a GAN with a novel pixel-level discriminator (PD), called PDA-GAN, to generate graphic layouts according to image contents. The PD is connected to the shallow level feature map and computes the GAN loss for each input-image pixel. Both quantitative and qualitative evaluations demonstrate that PDA-GAN can achieve state-of-the-art performances and generate high-quality image-aware graphic layouts for advertising posters.
In this paper, we study the graphic layout generation problem of producing high-quality visual-textual presentation designs for given images. We note that image compositions, which contain not only global semantics but also spatial information, would largely affect layout results. Hence, we propose a deep generative model, dubbed as composition-aware graphic layout GAN (CGL-GAN), to synthesize layouts based on the global and spatial visual contents of input images. To obtain training images from images that already contain manually designed graphic layout data, previous work suggests masking design elements (e.g., texts and embellishments) as model inputs, which inevitably leaves hint of the ground truth. We study the misalignment between the training inputs (with hint masks) and test inputs (without masks), and design a novel domain alignment module (DAM) to narrow this gap. For training, we built a large-scale layout dataset which consists of 60,548 advertising posters with annotated layout information. To evaluate the generated layouts, we propose three novel metrics according to aesthetic intuitions. Through both quantitative and qualitative evaluations, we demonstrate that the proposed model can synthesize high-quality graphic layouts according to image compositions.
This work studies the task of glossification, of which the aim is to em transcribe natural spoken language sentences for the Deaf (hard-of-hearing) community to ordered sign language glosses. Previous sequence-to-sequence language models trained with paired sentence-gloss data often fail to capture the rich connections between the two distinct languages, leading to unsatisfactory transcriptions. We observe that despite different grammars, glosses effectively simplify sentences for the ease of deaf communication, while sharing a large portion of vocabulary with sentences. This has motivated us to implement glossification by executing a collection of editing actions, e.g. word addition, deletion, and copying, called editing programs, on their natural spoken language counterparts. Specifically, we design a new neural agent that learns to synthesize and execute editing programs, conditioned on sentence contexts and partial editing results. The agent is trained to imitate minimal editing programs, while exploring more widely the program space via policy gradients to optimize sequence-wise transcription quality. Results show that our approach outperforms previous glossification models by a large margin.
The Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) model has achieved the state-of-the-art performance for many natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Yet, limited research has been contributed to studying its effectiveness when the target domain is shifted from the pre-training corpora, for example, for biomedical or clinical NLP applications. In this paper, we applied it to a widely studied a hospital information extraction (IE) task and analyzed its performance under the transfer learning setting. Our application became the new state-of-the-art result by a clear margin, compared with a range of existing IE models. Specifically, on this nursing handover data set, the macro-average F1 score from our model was 0.438, whilst the previous best deep learning models had 0.416. In conclusion, we showed that BERT based pre-training models can be transferred to health-related documents under mild conditions and with a proper fine-tuning process.
Estimating the performance of a machine learning system is a longstanding challenge in artificial intelligence research. Today, this challenge is especially relevant given the emergence of systems which appear to increasingly outperform human beings. In some cases, this "superhuman" performance is readily demonstrated; for example by defeating legendary human players in traditional two player games. On the other hand, it can be challenging to evaluate classification models that potentially surpass human performance. Indeed, human annotations are often treated as a ground truth, which implicitly assumes the superiority of the human over any models trained on human annotations. In reality, human annotators can make mistakes and be subjective. Evaluating the performance with respect to a genuine oracle may be more objective and reliable, even when querying the oracle is expensive or impossible. In this paper, we first raise the challenge of evaluating the performance of both humans and models with respect to an oracle which is unobserved. We develop a theory for estimating the accuracy compared to the oracle, using only imperfect human annotations for reference. Our analysis provides a simple recipe for detecting and certifying superhuman performance in this setting, which we believe will assist in understanding the stage of current research on classification. We validate the convergence of the bounds and the assumptions of our theory on carefully designed toy experiments with known oracles. Moreover, we demonstrate the utility of our theory by meta-analyzing large-scale natural language processing tasks, for which an oracle does not exist, and show that under our assumptions a number of models from recent years are with high probability superhuman.
Well-annotated datasets, as shown in recent top studies, are becoming more important for researchers than ever before in supervised machine learning (ML). However, the dataset annotation process and its related human labor costs remain overlooked. In this work, we analyze the relationship between the annotation granularity and ML performance in sequence labeling, using clinical records from nursing shift-change handover. We first study a model derived from textual language features alone, without additional information based on nursing knowledge. We find that this sequence tagger performs well in most categories under this granularity. Then, we further include the additional manual annotations by a nurse, and find the sequence tagging performance remaining nearly the same. Finally, we give a guideline and reference to the community arguing it is not necessary and even not recommended to annotate in detailed granularity because of a low Return on Investment. Therefore we recommend emphasizing other features, like textual knowledge, for researchers and practitioners as a cost-effective source for increasing the sequence labeling performance.
Video deblurring models exploit consecutive frames to remove blurs from camera shakes and object motions. In order to utilize neighboring sharp patches, typical methods rely mainly on homography or optical flows to spatially align neighboring blurry frames. However, such explicit approaches are less effective in the presence of fast motions with large pixel displacements. In this work, we propose a novel implicit method to learn spatial correspondence among blurry frames in the feature space. To construct distant pixel correspondences, our model builds a correlation volume pyramid among all the pixel-pairs between neighboring frames. To enhance the features of the reference frame, we design a correlative aggregation module that maximizes the pixel-pair correlations with its neighbors based on the volume pyramid. Finally, we feed the aggregated features into a reconstruction module to obtain the restored frame. We design a generative adversarial paradigm to optimize the model progressively. Our proposed method is evaluated on the widely-adopted DVD dataset, along with a newly collected High-Frame-Rate (1000 fps) Dataset for Video Deblurring (HFR-DVD). Quantitative and qualitative experiments show that our model performs favorably on both datasets against previous state-of-the-art methods, confirming the benefit of modeling all-range spatial correspondence for video deblurring.
Sign language translation (SLT) aims to interpret sign video sequences into text-based natural language sentences. Sign videos consist of continuous sequences of sign gestures with no clear boundaries in between. Existing SLT models usually represent sign visual features in a frame-wise manner so as to avoid needing to explicitly segmenting the videos into isolated signs. However, these methods neglect the temporal information of signs and lead to substantial ambiguity in translation. In this paper, we explore the temporal semantic structures of signvideos to learn more discriminative features. To this end, we first present a novel sign video segment representation which takes into account multiple temporal granularities, thus alleviating the need for accurate video segmentation. Taking advantage of the proposed segment representation, we develop a novel hierarchical sign video feature learning method via a temporal semantic pyramid network, called TSPNet. Specifically, TSPNet introduces an inter-scale attention to evaluate and enhance local semantic consistency of sign segments and an intra-scale attention to resolve semantic ambiguity by using non-local video context. Experiments show that our TSPNet outperforms the state-of-the-art with significant improvements on the BLEU score (from 9.58 to 13.41) and ROUGE score (from 31.80 to 34.96)on the largest commonly-used SLT dataset. Our implementation is available at https://github.com/verashira/TSPNet.
Word-level sign language recognition (WSLR) is a fundamental task in sign language interpretation. It requires models to recognize isolated sign words from videos. However, annotating WSLR data needs expert knowledge, thus limiting WSLR dataset acquisition. On the contrary, there are abundant subtitled sign news videos on the internet. Since these videos have no word-level annotation and exhibit a large domain gap from isolated signs, they cannot be directly used for training WSLR models. We observe that despite the existence of a large domain gap, isolated and news signs share the same visual concepts, such as hand gestures and body movements. Motivated by this observation, we propose a novel method that learns domain-invariant visual concepts and fertilizes WSLR models by transferring knowledge of subtitled news sign to them. To this end, we extract news signs using a base WSLR model, and then design a classifier jointly trained on news and isolated signs to coarsely align these two domain features. In order to learn domain-invariant features within each class and suppress domain-specific features, our method further resorts to an external memory to store the class centroids of the aligned news signs. We then design a temporal attention based on the learnt descriptor to improve recognition performance. Experimental results on standard WSLR datasets show that our method outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods significantly. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of our method on automatically localizing signs from sign news, achieving 28.1 for AP@0.5.