Parameter Efficient Fine-Tuning (PEFT) has gained significant attention for its ability to achieve competitive results while updating only a small subset of trainable parameters. Despite the promising performance of current PEFT methods, they present challenges in hyperparameter selection, such as determining the rank of LoRA or Adapter, or specifying the length of soft prompts. In addressing these challenges, we propose a novel approach to fine-tuning neural models, termed Representation EDiting (RED), which scales and biases the representation produced at each layer. RED substantially reduces the number of trainable parameters by a factor of $25,700$ compared to full parameter fine-tuning, and by a factor of $32$ compared to LoRA. Remarkably, RED achieves comparable or superior results to full parameter fine-tuning and other PEFT methods. Extensive experiments were conducted across models of varying architectures and scales, including RoBERTa, GPT-2, T5, and Llama-2, and the results demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of RED, positioning it as a promising PEFT approach for large neural models.
Spiking neural networks (SNNs), inspired by the spiking behavior of biological neurons, provide a unique pathway for capturing the intricacies of temporal data. However, applying SNNs to time-series forecasting is challenging due to difficulties in effective temporal alignment, complexities in encoding processes, and the absence of standardized guidelines for model selection. In this paper, we propose a framework for SNNs in time-series forecasting tasks, leveraging the efficiency of spiking neurons in processing temporal information. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that our proposed SNN-based approaches achieve comparable or superior results to traditional time-series forecasting methods on diverse benchmarks with much less energy consumption. Furthermore, we conduct detailed analysis experiments to assess the SNN's capacity to capture temporal dependencies within time-series data, offering valuable insights into its nuanced strengths and effectiveness in modeling the intricate dynamics of temporal data. Our study contributes to the expanding field of SNNs and offers a promising alternative for time-series forecasting tasks, presenting a pathway for the development of more biologically inspired and temporally aware forecasting models.
Aligning large language models (LLMs) with human preferences is crucial for enhancing their utility in terms of helpfulness, truthfulness, safety, harmlessness, and interestingness. Existing methods for achieving this alignment often involves employing reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) to fine-tune LLMs based on human labels assessing the relative quality of model responses. Nevertheless, RLHF is susceptible to instability during fine-tuning and presents challenges in implementation.Drawing inspiration from the emerging field of representation engineering (RepE), this study aims to identify relevant representations for high-level human preferences embedded in patterns of activity within an LLM, and achieve precise control of model behavior by transforming its representations. This novel approach, denoted as Representation Alignment from Human Feedback (RAHF), proves to be effective, computationally efficient, and easy to implement.Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficacy of RAHF in not only capturing but also manipulating representations to align with a broad spectrum of human preferences or values, rather than being confined to a singular concept or function (e.g. honesty or bias). RAHF's versatility in accommodating diverse human preferences shows its potential for advancing LLM performance.
Spiking neural networks (SNNs) have demonstrated the capability to achieve comparable performance to deep neural networks (DNNs) in both visual and linguistic domains while offering the advantages of improved energy efficiency and adherence to biological plausibility. However, the extension of such single-modality SNNs into the realm of multimodal scenarios remains an unexplored territory. Drawing inspiration from the concept of contrastive language-image pre-training (CLIP), we introduce a novel framework, named SpikeCLIP, to address the gap between two modalities within the context of spike-based computing through a two-step recipe involving ``Alignment Pre-training + Dual-Loss Fine-tuning". Extensive experiments demonstrate that SNNs achieve comparable results to their DNN counterparts while significantly reducing energy consumption across a variety of datasets commonly used for multimodal model evaluation. Furthermore, SpikeCLIP maintains robust performance in image classification tasks that involve class labels not predefined within specific categories.
Spiking neural networks (SNNs) offer a promising avenue to implement deep neural networks in a more energy-efficient way. However, the network architectures of existing SNNs for language tasks are too simplistic, and deep architectures have not been fully explored, resulting in a significant performance gap compared to mainstream transformer-based networks such as BERT. To this end, we improve a recently-proposed spiking transformer (i.e., Spikformer) to make it possible to process language tasks and propose a two-stage knowledge distillation method for training it, which combines pre-training by distilling knowledge from BERT with a large collection of unlabelled texts and fine-tuning with task-specific instances via knowledge distillation again from the BERT fine-tuned on the same training examples. Through extensive experimentation, we show that the models trained with our method, named SpikeBERT, outperform state-of-the-art SNNs and even achieve comparable results to BERTs on text classification tasks for both English and Chinese with much less energy consumption.