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"photo style transfer": models, code, and papers

MVStylizer: An Efficient Edge-Assisted Video Photorealistic Style Transfer System for Mobile Phones

May 24, 2020
Ang Li, Chunpeng Wu, Yiran Chen, Bin Ni

Recent research has made great progress in realizing neural style transfer of images, which denotes transforming an image to a desired style. Many users start to use their mobile phones to record their daily life, and then edit and share the captured images and videos with other users. However, directly applying existing style transfer approaches on videos, i.e., transferring the style of a video frame by frame, requires an extremely large amount of computation resources. It is still technically unaffordable to perform style transfer of videos on mobile phones. To address this challenge, we propose MVStylizer, an efficient edge-assisted photorealistic video style transfer system for mobile phones. Instead of performing stylization frame by frame, only key frames in the original video are processed by a pre-trained deep neural network (DNN) on edge servers, while the rest of stylized intermediate frames are generated by our designed optical-flow-based frame interpolation algorithm on mobile phones. A meta-smoothing module is also proposed to simultaneously upscale a stylized frame to arbitrary resolution and remove style transfer related distortions in these upscaled frames. In addition, for the sake of continuously enhancing the performance of the DNN model on the edge server, we adopt a federated learning scheme to keep retraining each DNN model on the edge server with collected data from mobile clients and syncing with a global DNN model on the cloud server. Such a scheme effectively leverages the diversity of collected data from various mobile clients and efficiently improves the system performance. Our experiments demonstrate that MVStylizer can generate stylized videos with an even better visual quality compared to the state-of-the-art method while achieving 75.5$\times$ speedup for 1920$\times$1080 videos.

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Anisotropic Stroke Control for Multiple Artists Style Transfer

Oct 16, 2020
Xuanhong Chen, Xirui Yan, Naiyuan Liu, Ting Qiu, Bingbing Ni

Though significant progress has been made in artistic style transfer, semantic information is usually difficult to be preserved in a fine-grained locally consistent manner by most existing methods, especially when multiple artists styles are required to transfer within one single model. To circumvent this issue, we propose a Stroke Control Multi-Artist Style Transfer framework. On the one hand, we develop a multi-condition single-generator structure which first performs multi-artist style transfer. On the one hand, we design an Anisotropic Stroke Module (ASM) which realizes the dynamic adjustment of style-stroke between the non-trivial and the trivial regions. ASM endows the network with the ability of adaptive semantic-consistency among various styles. On the other hand, we present an novel Multi-Scale Projection Discriminator} to realize the texture-level conditional generation. In contrast to the single-scale conditional discriminator, our discriminator is able to capture multi-scale texture clue to effectively distinguish a wide range of artistic styles. Extensive experimental results well demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach. Our framework can transform a photograph into different artistic style oil painting via only ONE single model. Furthermore, the results are with distinctive artistic style and retain the anisotropic semantic information.

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Image Style Transfer: from Artistic to Photorealistic

Mar 12, 2022
Chenggui Sun, Li Bin Song

The rapid advancement of deep learning has significantly boomed the development of photorealistic style transfer. In this review, we reviewed the development of photorealistic style transfer starting from artistic style transfer and the contribution of traditional image processing techniques on photorealistic style transfer, including some work that had been completed in the Multimedia lab at the University of Alberta. Many techniques were discussed in this review. However, our focus is on VGG-based techniques, whitening and coloring transform (WCTs) based techniques, the combination of deep learning with traditional image processing techniques.

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Neural arbitrary style transfer for portrait images using the attention mechanism

Feb 17, 2020
S. A. Berezin, V. M. Volkova

Arbitrary style transfer is the task of synthesis of an image that has never been seen before, using two given images: content image and style image. The content image forms the structure, the basic geometric lines and shapes of the resulting image, while the style image sets the color and texture of the result. The word "arbitrary" in this context means the absence of any one pre-learned style. So, for example, convolutional neural networks capable of transferring a new style only after training or retraining on a new amount of data are not con-sidered to solve such a problem, while networks based on the attention mech-anism that are capable of performing such a transformation without retraining - yes. An original image can be, for example, a photograph, and a style image can be a painting of a famous artist. The resulting image in this case will be the scene depicted in the original photograph, made in the stylie of this picture. Recent arbitrary style transfer algorithms make it possible to achieve good re-sults in this task, however, in processing portrait images of people, the result of such algorithms is either unacceptable due to excessive distortion of facial features, or weakly expressed, not bearing the characteristic features of a style image. In this paper, we consider an approach to solving this problem using the combined architecture of deep neural networks with a attention mechanism that transfers style based on the contents of a particular image segment: with a clear predominance of style over the form for the background part of the im-age, and with the prevalence of content over the form in the image part con-taining directly the image of a person.

* in Russian 
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What Can Style Transfer and Paintings Do For Model Robustness?

Nov 30, 2020
Hubert Lin, Mitchell van Zuijlen, Sylvia C. Pont, Maarten W. A. Wijntjes, Kavita Bala

A common strategy for improving model robustness is through data augmentations. Data augmentations encourage models to learn desired invariances, such as invariance to horizontal flipping or small changes in color. Recent work has shown that arbitrary style transfer can be used as a form of data augmentation to encourage invariance to textures by creating painting-like images from photographs. However, a stylized photograph is not quite the same as an artist-created painting. Artists depict perceptually meaningful cues in paintings so that humans can recognize salient components in scenes, an emphasis which is not enforced in style transfer. Therefore, we study how style transfer and paintings differ in their impact on model robustness. First, we investigate the role of paintings as style images for stylization-based data augmentation. We find that style transfer functions well even without paintings as style images. Second, we show that learning from paintings as a form of perceptual data augmentation can improve model robustness. Finally, we investigate the invariances learned from stylization and from paintings, and show that models learn different invariances from these differing forms of data. Our results provide insights into how stylization improves model robustness, and provide evidence that artist-created paintings can be a valuable source of data for model robustness.

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Deep Translation Prior: Test-time Training for Photorealistic Style Transfer

Dec 12, 2021
Sunwoo Kim, Soohyun Kim, Seungryong Kim

Recent techniques to solve photorealistic style transfer within deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) generally require intensive training from large-scale datasets, thus having limited applicability and poor generalization ability to unseen images or styles. To overcome this, we propose a novel framework, dubbed Deep Translation Prior (DTP), to accomplish photorealistic style transfer through test-time training on given input image pair with untrained networks, which learns an image pair-specific translation prior and thus yields better performance and generalization. Tailored for such test-time training for style transfer, we present novel network architectures, with two sub-modules of correspondence and generation modules, and loss functions consisting of contrastive content, style, and cycle consistency losses. Our framework does not require offline training phase for style transfer, which has been one of the main challenges in existing methods, but the networks are to be solely learned during test-time. Experimental results prove that our framework has a better generalization ability to unseen image pairs and even outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.

* Accepted to AAAI 2022, Camera-ready version. The code will be made available at 
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CariGANs: Unpaired Photo-to-Caricature Translation

Nov 02, 2018
Kaidi Cao, Jing Liao, Lu Yuan

Facial caricature is an art form of drawing faces in an exaggerated way to convey humor or sarcasm. In this paper, we propose the first Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) for unpaired photo-to-caricature translation, which we call "CariGANs". It explicitly models geometric exaggeration and appearance stylization using two components: CariGeoGAN, which only models the geometry-to-geometry transformation from face photos to caricatures, and CariStyGAN, which transfers the style appearance from caricatures to face photos without any geometry deformation. In this way, a difficult cross-domain translation problem is decoupled into two easier tasks. The perceptual study shows that caricatures generated by our CariGANs are closer to the hand-drawn ones, and at the same time better persevere the identity, compared to state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, our CariGANs allow users to control the shape exaggeration degree and change the color/texture style by tuning the parameters or giving an example caricature.

* ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 37, No. 6, Article 244. Publication date: November 2018 
* To appear at SIGGRAPH Asia 2018 
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Fashioning with Networks: Neural Style Transfer to Design Clothes

Jul 31, 2017
Prutha Date, Ashwinkumar Ganesan, Tim Oates

Convolutional Neural Networks have been highly successful in performing a host of computer vision tasks such as object recognition, object detection, image segmentation and texture synthesis. In 2015, Gatys et. al [7] show how the style of a painter can be extracted from an image of the painting and applied to another normal photograph, thus recreating the photo in the style of the painter. The method has been successfully applied to a wide range of images and has since spawned multiple applications and mobile apps. In this paper, the neural style transfer algorithm is applied to fashion so as to synthesize new custom clothes. We construct an approach to personalize and generate new custom clothes based on a users preference and by learning the users fashion choices from a limited set of clothes from their closet. The approach is evaluated by analyzing the generated images of clothes and how well they align with the users fashion style.

* ML4Fashion 2017 
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Joint Bilateral Learning for Real-time Universal Photorealistic Style Transfer

Apr 27, 2020
Xide Xia, Meng Zhang, Tianfan Xue, Zheng Sun, Hui Fang, Brian Kulis, Jiawen Chen

Photorealistic style transfer is the task of transferring the artistic style of an image onto a content target, producing a result that is plausibly taken with a camera. Recent approaches, based on deep neural networks, produce impressive results but are either too slow to run at practical resolutions, or still contain objectionable artifacts. We propose a new end-to-end model for photorealistic style transfer that is both fast and inherently generates photorealistic results. The core of our approach is a feed-forward neural network that learns local edge-aware affine transforms that automatically obey the photorealism constraint. When trained on a diverse set of images and a variety of styles, our model can robustly apply style transfer to an arbitrary pair of input images. Compared to the state of the art, our method produces visually superior results and is three orders of magnitude faster, enabling real-time performance at 4K on a mobile phone. We validate our method with ablation and user studies.

* 16 pages, 10 figures 
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