We propose a new method to detect when users express the intent to leave a service, also known as churn. While previous work focuses solely on social media, we show that this intent can be detected in chatbot conversations. As companies increasingly rely on chatbots they need an overview of potentially churny users. To this end, we crowdsource and publish a dataset of churn intent expressions in chatbot interactions in German and English. We show that classifiers trained on social media data can detect the same intent in the context of chatbots. We introduce a classification architecture that outperforms existing work on churn intent detection in social media. Moreover, we show that, using bilingual word embeddings, a system trained on combined English and German data outperforms monolingual approaches. As the only existing dataset is in English, we crowdsource and publish a novel dataset of German tweets. We thus underline the universal aspect of the problem, as examples of churn intent in English help us identify churn in German tweets and chatbot conversations.
Chatbots are intelligent conversational computer systems designed to mimic human conversation to enable automated online guidance and support. The increased benefits of chatbots led to their wide adoption by many industries in order to provide virtual assistance to customers. Chatbots utilise methods and algorithms from two Artificial Intelligence domains: Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning. However, there are many challenges and limitations in their application. In this survey we review recent advances on chatbots, where Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language processing are used. We highlight the main challenges and limitations of current work and make recommendations for future research investigation.
Personalized chatbots focus on endowing chatbots with a consistent personality to behave like real users, give more informative responses, and further act as personal assistants. Existing personalized approaches tried to incorporate several text descriptions as explicit user profiles. However, the acquisition of such explicit profiles is expensive and time-consuming, thus being impractical for large-scale real-world applications. Moreover, the restricted predefined profile neglects the language behavior of a real user and cannot be automatically updated together with the change of user interests. In this paper, we propose to learn implicit user profiles automatically from large-scale user dialogue history for building personalized chatbots. Specifically, leveraging the benefits of Transformer on language understanding, we train a personalized language model to construct a general user profile from the user's historical responses. To highlight the relevant historical responses to the input post, we further establish a key-value memory network of historical post-response pairs, and build a dynamic post-aware user profile. The dynamic profile mainly describes what and how the user has responded to similar posts in history. To explicitly utilize users' frequently used words, we design a personalized decoder to fuse two decoding strategies, including generating a word from the generic vocabulary and copying one word from the user's personalized vocabulary. Experiments on two real-world datasets show the significant improvement of our model compared with existing methods.
Searching for an available, reliable, official, and understandable information is not a trivial task due to scattered information across the internet, and the availability lack of governmental communication channels communicating with African dialects and languages. In this paper, we introduce an Artificial Intelligence Powered chatbot for crisis communication that would be omnichannel, multilingual and multi dialectal. We present our work on modified StarSpace embedding tailored for African dialects for the question-answering task along with the architecture of the proposed chatbot system and a description of the different layers. English, French, Arabic, Tunisian, Igbo,Yor\`ub\'a, and Hausa are used as languages and dialects. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation results are obtained for our real deployed Covid-19 chatbot. Results show that users are satisfied and the conversation with the chatbot is meeting customer needs.
Since the advent of chatbots in the commercial sector, they have been widely employed in the customer service department. Typically, these commercial chatbots are retrieval-based, so they are unable to respond to queries absent in the provided dataset. On the contrary, generative chatbots try to create the most appropriate response, but are mostly unable to create a smooth flow in the customer-bot dialog. Since the client has few options left for continuing after receiving a response, the dialog becomes short. Through our work, we try to maximize the intelligence of a simple conversational agent so it can answer unseen queries, and generate follow-up questions or remarks. We have built a chatbot for a jewelry shop that finds the underlying objective of the customer's query by finding similarity of the input to patterns in the corpus. Our system features an audio input interface for clients, so they may speak to it in natural language. After converting the audio to text, we trained the model to extract the intent of the query, to find an appropriate response and to speak to the client in a natural human voice. To gauge the system's performance, we used performance metrics such as Recall, Precision and F1 score.
A set of steps for implementing a chatbot, to support decision-making activities in the software incident management process is proposed and discussed in this article. Each step is presented independently of the platform used for the construction of chatbots and are detailed with their respective activities. The proposed steps can be carried out in a continuous and adaptable way, favoring the constant training of a chatbot and allowing the increasingly cohesive interpretatin of the intentions of the specialists who work in the Software Incident Management Process. The software incident resolution process accordingly to the ITIL framework, is considered for the experiment. The results of the work present the steps for the chatbot construction, the solution based on DialogFlow platform and some conclusions based on the experiment.
Internet of Things (IoT) is emerging as a significant technology in shaping the future by connecting physical devices or things with internet. It also presents various opportunities for intersection of other technological trends which can allow it to become even more intelligent and efficient. In this paper we focus our attention on the integration of Intelligent Conversational Software Agents or Chatbots with IoT. Literature surveys have looked into various applications, features, underlying technologies and known challenges of IoT. On the other hand, Chatbots are being adopted in greater numbers due to major strides in development of platforms and frameworks. The novelty of this paper lies in the specific integration of Chatbots in the IoT scenario. We analyzed the shortcomings of existing IoT systems and put forward ways to tackle them by incorporating chatbots. A general architecture is proposed for implementing such a system, as well as platforms and frameworks, both commercial and open source, which allow for implementation of such systems. Identification of the newer challenges and possible future directions with this new integration, have also been addressed.
The ubiquitous nature of chatbots and their interaction with users generate an enormous amount of data. Can we improve chatbots using this data? A self-feeding chatbot improves itself by asking natural language feedback when a user is dissatisfied with its response and uses this feedback as an additional training sample. However, user feedback in most cases contains extraneous sequences hindering their usefulness as a training sample. In this work, we propose a generative adversarial model that converts noisy feedback into a plausible natural response in a conversation. The generator's goal is to convert the feedback into a response that answers the user's previous utterance and to fool the discriminator which distinguishes feedback from natural responses. We show that augmenting original training data with these modified feedback responses improves the original chatbot performance from 69.94% to 75.96% in ranking correct responses on the Personachat dataset, a large improvement given that the original model is already trained on 131k samples.
Through advances in their conversational abilities, chatbots have started to request and process an increasing variety of sensitive personal information. The accurate disclosure of sensitive information is essential where it is used to provide advice and support to users in the healthcare and finance sectors. In this study, we explore users' concerns regarding factors associated with the use of sensitive data by chatbot providers. We surveyed a representative sample of 491 British citizens. Our results show that the user concerns focus on deleting personal information and concerns about their data's inappropriate use. We also identified that individuals were concerned about losing control over their data after a conversation with conversational agents. We found no effect from a user's gender or education but did find an effect from the user's age, with those over 45 being more concerned than those under 45. We also considered the factors that engender trust in a chatbot. Our respondents' primary focus was on the chatbot's technical elements, with factors such as the response quality being identified as the most critical factor. We again found no effect from the user's gender or education level; however, when we considered some social factors (e.g. avatars or perceived 'friendliness'), we found those under 45 years old rated these as more important than those over 45. The paper concludes with a discussion of these results within the context of designing inclusive, digital systems that support a wide range of users.