There are various algorithms and methodologies used for automated screening of cervical cancer by segmenting and classifying cervical cancer cells into different categories. This study presents a critical review of different research papers published that integrated AI methods in screening cervical cancer via different approaches analyzed in terms of typical metrics like dataset size, drawbacks, accuracy etc. An attempt has been made to furnish the reader with an insight of Machine Learning algorithms like SVM (Support Vector Machines), GLCM (Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix), k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbours), MARS (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines), CNNs (Convolutional Neural Networks), spatial fuzzy clustering algorithms, PNNs (Probabilistic Neural Networks), Genetic Algorithm, RFT (Random Forest Trees), C5.0, CART (Classification and Regression Trees) and Hierarchical clustering algorithm for feature extraction, cell segmentation and classification. This paper also covers the publicly available datasets related to cervical cancer. It presents a holistic review on the computational methods that have evolved over the period of time, in chronological order in detection of malignant cells.
We propose a fully-automated method for accurate and robust detection and segmentation of potentially cancerous lesions found in the liver and in lymph nodes. The process is performed in three steps, including organ detection, lesion detection and lesion segmentation. Our method applies machine learning techniques such as marginal space learning and convolutional neural networks, as well as active contour models. The method proves to be robust in its handling of extremely high lesion diversity. We tested our method on volumetric computed tomography (CT) images, including 42 volumes containing liver lesions and 86 volumes containing 595 pathological lymph nodes. Preliminary results under 10-fold cross validation show that for both the liver lesions and the lymph nodes, a total detection sensitivity of 0.53 and average Dice score of $0.71 \pm 0.15$ for segmentation were obtained.
Breast cancer is one of the most common and prevalent type of cancer that mainly affects the women population. chances of effective treatment increases with early diagnosis. Mammography is considered one of the effective and proven techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer. Tissues around masses look identical in mammogram, which makes automatic detection process a very challenging task. They are indistinguishable from the surrounding parenchyma. In this paper, we present an efficient and automated approach to segment masses in mammograms. The proposed method uses hierarchical clustering to isolate the salient area, and then features are extracted to reject false detection. We applied our method on two popular publicly available datasets (mini-MIAS and DDSM). A total of 56 images from mini-mias database, and 76 images from DDSM were randomly selected. Results are explained in-terms of ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristics) curves and compared with the other techniques. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency and advantages of the proposed system in automatic mass identification in mammograms.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and morbidity worldwide with early detection being the key to a positive patient prognosis. Although a multitude of studies have demonstrated that machine learning, and particularly deep learning, techniques are effective at automatically diagnosing lung cancer, these techniques have yet to be clinically approved and accepted/adopted by the medical community. Rather than attempting to provide an artificial 'second reading' we instead focus on the automatic creation of viable decision tree models from publicly available data using computer vision and machine learning techniques. For a small inferencing dataset, this method achieves a best accuracy over 84% with a positive predictive value of 83% for the malignant class. Furthermore, the decision trees created by this process may be considered as a starting point for refinement by medical experts into clinically usable multi-variate lung cancer scoring and diagnostic models.
Automatic detection of brain neoplasm in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is gaining importance in many medical diagnostic applications. This report presents two improvements for brain neoplasm detection in MRI data: an advanced preprocessing technique is proposed to improve the area of interest in MRI data and a hybrid technique using Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for feature extraction followed by Support Vector Machine (SVM) for classification. The learning algorithm for SVM is modified with the addition of cost function to minimize false positive prediction addressing the errors in MRI data diagnosis. The proposed approach can effectively detect the presence of neoplasm and also predict whether it is cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). To check the effectiveness of the proposed preprocessing technique, it is inspected visually and evaluated using training performance metrics. A comparison study between the proposed classification technique and the existing techniques was performed. The result showed that the proposed approach outperformed in terms of accuracy and can handle errors in classification better than the existing approaches.
We present a deep learning framework for computer-aided lung cancer diagnosis. Our multi-stage framework detects nodules in 3D lung CAT scans, determines if each nodule is malignant, and finally assigns a cancer probability based on these results. We discuss the challenges and advantages of our framework. In the Kaggle Data Science Bowl 2017, our framework ranked 41st out of 1972 teams.
This paper presents U-net based breast cancer metastases detection and classification in lymph nodes, as well as patient-level classification based on metastases detection. The whole pipeline can be divided into five steps: preprocessing and data argumentation, patch-based segmentation, post processing, slide-level classification, and patient-level classification. In order to reduce overfitting and speedup convergence, we applied batch normalization and dropout into U-Net. The final Kappa score reaches 0.902 on training data.
Classification of malignancy for breast cancer and other cancer types is usually tackled as an object detection problem: Individual lesions are first localized and then classified with respect to malignancy. However, the drawback of this approach is that abstract features incorporating several lesions and areas that are not labelled as a lesion but contain global medically relevant information are thus disregarded: especially for dynamic contrast-enhanced breast MRI, criteria such as background parenchymal enhancement and location within the breast are important for diagnosis and cannot be captured by object detection approaches properly. In this work, we propose a 3D CNN and a multi scale curriculum learning strategy to classify malignancy globally based on an MRI of the whole breast. Thus, the global context of the whole breast rather than individual lesions is taken into account. Our proposed approach does not rely on lesion segmentations, which renders the annotation of training data much more effective than in current object detection approaches. Achieving an AUROC of 0.89, we compare the performance of our approach to Mask R-CNN and Retina U-Net as well as a radiologist. Our performance is on par with approaches that, in contrast to our method, rely on pixelwise segmentations of lesions.
In the U.S, 5-10\% of new pediatric cases of cancer are primary bone tumors. The most common type of primary malignant bone tumor is osteosarcoma. The intention of the present work is to improve the detection and diagnosis of osteosarcoma using computer-aided detection (CAD) and diagnosis (CADx). Such tools as convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can significantly decrease the surgeon's workload and make a better prognosis of patient conditions. CNNs need to be trained on a large amount of data in order to achieve a more trustworthy performance. In this study, transfer learning techniques, pre-trained CNNs, are adapted to a public dataset on osteosarcoma histological images to detect necrotic images from non-necrotic and healthy tissues. First, the dataset was preprocessed, and different classifications are applied. Then, Transfer learning models including VGG19 and Inception V3 are used and trained on Whole Slide Images (WSI) with no patches, to improve the accuracy of the outputs. Finally, the models are applied to different classification problems, including binary and multi-class classifiers. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the VGG19 has the highest, 96\%, performance amongst all binary classes and multiclass classification. Our fine-tuned model demonstrates state-of-the-art performance on detecting malignancy of Osteosarcoma based on histologic images.