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"Recommendation": models, code, and papers

Device-Cloud Collaborative Recommendation via Meta Controller

Jul 07, 2022
Jiangchao Yao, Feng Wang, Xichen Ding, Shaohu Chen, Bo Han, Jingren Zhou, Hongxia Yang

On-device machine learning enables the lightweight deployment of recommendation models in local clients, which reduces the burden of the cloud-based recommenders and simultaneously incorporates more real-time user features. Nevertheless, the cloud-based recommendation in the industry is still very important considering its powerful model capacity and the efficient candidate generation from the billion-scale item pool. Previous attempts to integrate the merits of both paradigms mainly resort to a sequential mechanism, which builds the on-device recommender on top of the cloud-based recommendation. However, such a design is inflexible when user interests dramatically change: the on-device model is stuck by the limited item cache while the cloud-based recommendation based on the large item pool do not respond without the new re-fresh feedback. To overcome this issue, we propose a meta controller to dynamically manage the collaboration between the on-device recommender and the cloud-based recommender, and introduce a novel efficient sample construction from the causal perspective to solve the dataset absence issue of meta controller. On the basis of the counterfactual samples and the extended training, extensive experiments in the industrial recommendation scenarios show the promise of meta controller in the device-cloud collaboration.

* KDD 2022 

The Use of Machine Learning Algorithms in Recommender Systems: A Systematic Review

Feb 24, 2016
Ivens Portugal, Paulo Alencar, Donald Cowan

Recommender systems use algorithms to provide users with product or service recommendations. Recently, these systems have been using machine learning algorithms from the field of artificial intelligence. However, choosing a suitable machine learning algorithm for a recommender system is difficult because of the number of algorithms described in the literature. Researchers and practitioners developing recommender systems are left with little information about the current approaches in algorithm usage. Moreover, the development of a recommender system using a machine learning algorithm often has problems and open questions that must be evaluated, so software engineers know where to focus research efforts. This paper presents a systematic review of the literature that analyzes the use of machine learning algorithms in recommender systems and identifies research opportunities for software engineering research. The study concludes that Bayesian and decision tree algorithms are widely used in recommender systems because of their relative simplicity, and that requirement and design phases of recommender system development appear to offer opportunities for further research.


A General Framework for Fairness in Multistakeholder Recommendations

Sep 04, 2020
Harshal A. Chaudhari, Sangdi Lin, Ondrej Linda

Contemporary recommender systems act as intermediaries on multi-sided platforms serving high utility recommendations from sellers to buyers. Such systems attempt to balance the objectives of multiple stakeholders including sellers, buyers, and the platform itself. The difficulty in providing recommendations that maximize the utility for a buyer, while simultaneously representing all the sellers on the platform has lead to many interesting research problems.Traditionally, they have been formulated as integer linear programs which compute recommendations for all the buyers together in an \emph{offline} fashion, by incorporating coverage constraints so that the individual sellers are proportionally represented across all the recommended items. Such approaches can lead to unforeseen biases wherein certain buyers consistently receive low utility recommendations in order to meet the global seller coverage constraints. To remedy this situation, we propose a general formulation that incorporates seller coverage objectives alongside individual buyer objectives in a real-time personalized recommender system. In addition, we leverage highly scalable submodular optimization algorithms to provide recommendations to each buyer with provable theoretical quality bounds. Furthermore, we empirically evaluate the efficacy of our approach using data from an online real-estate marketplace.

* 7 pages, 3 figures 

Towards Knowledge-Based Recommender Dialog System

Aug 15, 2019
Qibin Chen, Junyang Lin, Yichang Zhang, Ming Ding, Yukuo Cen, Hongxia Yang, Jie Tang

In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end framework called KBRD, which stands for Knowledge-Based Recommender Dialog System. It integrates the recommender system and the dialog generation system. The dialog system can enhance the performance of the recommendation system by introducing knowledge-grounded information about users' preferences, and the recommender system can improve that of the dialog generation system by providing recommendation-aware vocabulary bias. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed model has significant advantages over the baselines in both the evaluation of dialog generation and recommendation. A series of analyses show that the two systems can bring mutual benefits to each other, and the introduced knowledge bridges the gap between the two systems.

* To appear in EMNLP 2019 

Balancing Accuracy and Fairness for Interactive Recommendation with Reinforcement Learning

Jun 25, 2021
Weiwen Liu, Feng Liu, Ruiming Tang, Ben Liao, Guangyong Chen, Pheng Ann Heng

Fairness in recommendation has attracted increasing attention due to bias and discrimination possibly caused by traditional recommenders. In Interactive Recommender Systems (IRS), user preferences and the system's fairness status are constantly changing over time. Existing fairness-aware recommenders mainly consider fairness in static settings. Directly applying existing methods to IRS will result in poor recommendation. To resolve this problem, we propose a reinforcement learning based framework, FairRec, to dynamically maintain a long-term balance between accuracy and fairness in IRS. User preferences and the system's fairness status are jointly compressed into the state representation to generate recommendations. FairRec aims at maximizing our designed cumulative reward that combines accuracy and fairness. Extensive experiments validate that FairRec can improve fairness, while preserving good recommendation quality.


Personalized Prompts for Sequential Recommendation

May 19, 2022
Yiqing Wu, Ruobing Xie, Yongchun Zhu, Fuzhen Zhuang, Xu Zhang, Leyu Lin, Qing He

Pre-training models have shown their power in sequential recommendation. Recently, prompt has been widely explored and verified for tuning in NLP pre-training, which could help to more effectively and efficiently extract useful knowledge from pre-training models for downstream tasks, especially in cold-start scenarios. However, it is challenging to bring prompt-tuning from NLP to recommendation, since the tokens in recommendation (i.e., items) do not have explicit explainable semantics, and the sequence modeling should be personalized. In this work, we first introduces prompt to recommendation and propose a novel Personalized prompt-based recommendation (PPR) framework for cold-start recommendation. Specifically, we build the personalized soft prefix prompt via a prompt generator based on user profiles and enable a sufficient training of prompts via a prompt-oriented contrastive learning with both prompt- and behavior-based augmentations. We conduct extensive evaluations on various tasks. In both few-shot and zero-shot recommendation, PPR models achieve significant improvements over baselines on various metrics in three large-scale open datasets. We also conduct ablation tests and sparsity analysis for a better understanding of PPR. Moreover, We further verify PPR's universality on different pre-training models, and conduct explorations on PPR's other promising downstream tasks including cross-domain recommendation and user profile prediction.


A Qualitative Evaluation of User Preference for Link-based vs. Text-based Recommendations of Wikipedia Articles

Sep 16, 2021
Malte Ostendorff, Corinna Breitinger, Bela Gipp

Literature recommendation systems (LRS) assist readers in the discovery of relevant content from the overwhelming amount of literature available. Despite the widespread adoption of LRS, there is a lack of research on the user-perceived recommendation characteristics for fundamentally different approaches to content-based literature recommendation. To complement existing quantitative studies on literature recommendation, we present qualitative study results that report on users' perceptions for two contrasting recommendation classes: (1) link-based recommendation represented by the Co-Citation Proximity (CPA) approach, and (2) text-based recommendation represented by Lucene's MoreLikeThis (MLT) algorithm. The empirical data analyzed in our study with twenty users and a diverse set of 40 Wikipedia articles indicate a noticeable difference between text- and link-based recommendation generation approaches along several key dimensions. The text-based MLT method receives higher satisfaction ratings in terms of user-perceived similarity of recommended articles. In contrast, the CPA approach receives higher satisfaction scores in terms of diversity and serendipity of recommendations. We conclude that users of literature recommendation systems can benefit most from hybrid approaches that combine both link- and text-based approaches, where the user's information needs and preferences should control the weighting for the approaches used. The optimal weighting of multiple approaches used in a hybrid recommendation system is highly dependent on a user's shifting needs.

* Accepted for publication at ICADL 2021 

MoParkeR : Multi-objective Parking Recommendation

Jun 10, 2021
Mohammad Saiedur Rahaman, Wei Shao, Flora D. Salim, Ayad Turky, Andy Song, Jeffrey Chan, Junliang Jiang, Doug Bradbrook

Existing parking recommendation solutions mainly focus on finding and suggesting parking spaces based on the unoccupied options only. However, there are other factors associated with parking spaces that can influence someone's choice of parking such as fare, parking rule, walking distance to destination, travel time, likelihood to be unoccupied at a given time. More importantly, these factors may change over time and conflict with each other which makes the recommendations produced by current parking recommender systems ineffective. In this paper, we propose a novel problem called multi-objective parking recommendation. We present a solution by designing a multi-objective parking recommendation engine called MoParkeR that considers various conflicting factors together. Specifically, we utilise a non-dominated sorting technique to calculate a set of Pareto-optimal solutions, consisting of recommended trade-off parking spots. We conduct extensive experiments using two real-world datasets to show the applicability of our multi-objective recommendation methodology.

* 6 pages, 5 figures 

Introducing a Framework and a Decision Protocol to Calibrate Recommender Systems

Apr 07, 2022
Diego Corrêa da Silva, Frederico Araújo Durão

Recommender Systems use the user's profile to generate a recommendation list with unknown items to a target user. Although the primary goal of traditional recommendation systems is to deliver the most relevant items, such an effort unintentionally can cause collateral effects including low diversity and unbalanced genres or categories, benefiting particular groups of categories. This paper proposes an approach to create recommendation lists with a calibrated balance of genres, avoiding disproportion between the user's profile interests and the recommendation list. The calibrated recommendations consider concomitantly the relevance and the divergence between the genres distributions extracted from the user's preference and the recommendation list. The main claim is that calibration can contribute positively to generate fairer recommendations. In particular, we propose a new trade-off equation, which considers the users' bias to provide a recommendation list that seeks for the users' tendencies. Moreover, we propose a conceptual framework and a decision protocol to generate more than one thousand combinations of calibrated systems in order to find the best combination. We compare our approach against state-of-the-art approaches using multiple domain datasets, which are analyzed by rank and calibration metrics. The results indicate that the trade-off, which considers the users' bias, produces positive effects on the precision and to the fairness, thus generating recommendation lists that respect the genre distribution and, through the decision protocol, we also found the best system for each dataset.

* 12 Tables and 5 figures. Submitted to a journal 

Unbiased Learning for the Causal Effect of Recommendation

Aug 20, 2020
Masahiro Sato, Sho Takemori, Janmajay Singh, Tomoko Ohkuma

Increasing users' positive interactions, such as purchases or clicks, is an important objective of recommender systems. Recommenders typically aim to select items that users will interact with. If the recommended items are purchased, an increase in sales is expected. However, the items could have been purchased even without recommendation. Thus, we want to recommend items that results in purchases caused by recommendation. This can be formulated as a ranking problem in terms of the causal effect. Despite its importance, this problem has not been well explored in the related research. It is challenging because the ground truth of causal effect is unobservable, and estimating the causal effect is prone to the bias arising from currently deployed recommenders. This paper proposes an unbiased learning framework for the causal effect of recommendation. Based on the inverse propensity scoring technique, the proposed framework first constructs unbiased estimators for ranking metrics. Then, it conducts empirical risk minimization on the estimators with propensity capping, which reduces variance under finite training samples. Based on the framework, we develop an unbiased learning method for the causal effect extension of a ranking metric. We theoretically analyze the unbiasedness of the proposed method and empirically demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other biased learning methods in various settings.

* accepted at RecSys 2020