Topic modeling is a well-established technique for exploring text corpora. Conventional topic models (e.g., LDA) represent topics as bags of words that often require "reading the tea leaves" to interpret; additionally, they offer users minimal semantic control over topics. To tackle these issues, we introduce TopicGPT, a prompt-based framework that uses large language models (LLMs) to uncover latent topics within a provided text collection. TopicGPT produces topics that align better with human categorizations compared to competing methods: for example, it achieves a harmonic mean purity of 0.74 against human-annotated Wikipedia topics compared to 0.64 for the strongest baseline. Its topics are also more interpretable, dispensing with ambiguous bags of words in favor of topics with natural language labels and associated free-form descriptions. Moreover, the framework is highly adaptable, allowing users to specify constraints and modify topics without the need for model retraining. TopicGPT can be further extended to hierarchical topical modeling, enabling users to explore topics at various levels of granularity. By streamlining access to high-quality and interpretable topics, TopicGPT represents a compelling, human-centered approach to topic modeling.
Topic models are one of the compelling methods for discovering latent semantics in a document collection. However, it assumes that a document has sufficient co-occurrence information to be effective. However, in short texts, co-occurrence information is minimal, which results in feature sparsity in document representation. Therefore, existing topic models (probabilistic or neural) mostly fail to mine patterns from them to generate coherent topics. In this paper, we take a new approach to short-text topic modeling to address the data-sparsity issue by extending short text into longer sequences using existing pre-trained language models (PLMs). Besides, we provide a simple solution extending a neural topic model to reduce the effect of noisy out-of-topics text generation from PLMs. We observe that our model can substantially improve the performance of short-text topic modeling. Extensive experiments on multiple real-world datasets under extreme data sparsity scenarios show that our models can generate high-quality topics outperforming state-of-the-art models.
In the burgeoning field of natural language processing, Neural Topic Models (NTMs) and Large Language Models (LLMs) have emerged as areas of significant research interest. Despite this, NTMs primarily utilize contextual embeddings from LLMs, which are not optimal for clustering or capable for topic generation. Our study addresses this gap by introducing a novel framework named Diffusion-Enhanced Topic Modeling using Encoder-Decoder-based LLMs (DeTiME). DeTiME leverages ncoder-Decoder-based LLMs to produce highly clusterable embeddings that could generate topics that exhibit both superior clusterability and enhanced semantic coherence compared to existing methods. Additionally, by exploiting the power of diffusion, our framework also provides the capability to generate content relevant to the identified topics. This dual functionality allows users to efficiently produce highly clustered topics and related content simultaneously. DeTiME's potential extends to generating clustered embeddings as well. Notably, our proposed framework proves to be efficient to train and exhibits high adaptability, demonstrating its potential for a wide array of applications.
Topic modeling is admittedly a convenient way to monitor markets trend. Conventionally, Latent Dirichlet Allocation, LDA, is considered a must-do model to gain this type of information. By given the merit of deducing keyword with token conditional probability in LDA, we can know the most possible or essential topic. However, the results are not intuitive because the given topics cannot wholly fit human knowledge. LDA offers the first possible relevant keywords, which also brings out another problem of whether the connection is reliable based on the statistic possibility. It is also hard to decide the topic number manually in advance. As the booming trend of using fuzzy membership to cluster and using transformers to embed words, this work presents the fuzzy topic modeling based on soft clustering and document embedding from state-of-the-art transformer-based model. In our practical application in a press release monitoring, the fuzzy topic modeling gives a more natural result than the traditional output from LDA.
Topic models have been proposed for decades with various applications and recently refreshed by the neural variational inference. However, these topic models adopt totally distinct dataset, implementation, and evaluation settings, which hinders their quick utilization and fair comparisons. This greatly hinders the research progress of topic models. To address these issues, in this paper we propose a Topic Modeling System Toolkit (TopMost). Compared to existing toolkits, TopMost stands out by covering a wider range of topic modeling scenarios including complete lifecycles with dataset pre-processing, model training, testing, and evaluations. The highly cohesive and decoupled modular design of TopMost enables quick utilization, fair comparisons, and flexible extensions of different topic models. This can facilitate the research and applications of topic models. Our code, tutorials, and documentation are available at https://github.com/bobxwu/topmost.
Social media has become a very popular source of information. With this popularity comes an interest in systems that can classify the information produced. This study tries to create such a system detecting irony in Twitter users. Recent work emphasize the importance of lexical features, sentiment features and the contrast herein along with TF-IDF and topic models. Based on a thorough feature selection process, the resulting model contains specific sub-features from these areas. Our model reaches an F1-score of 0.84, which is above the baseline. We find that lexical features, especially TF-IDF, contribute the most to our models while sentiment and topic modeling features contribute less to overall performance. Lastly, we highlight multiple interesting and important paths for further exploration.
In today's rapidly evolving technological landscape and advanced software development, the rise in cyber security attacks has become a pressing concern. The integration of robust cyber security defenses has become essential across all phases of software development. It holds particular significance in identifying critical cyber security vulnerabilities at the initial stages of the software development life cycle, notably during the requirement phase. Through the utilization of cyber security repositories like The Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and Classification (CAPEC) from MITRE and the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) databases, attempts have been made to leverage topic modeling and machine learning for the detection of these early-stage vulnerabilities in the software requirements process. Past research themes have returned successful outcomes in attempting to automate vulnerability identification for software developers, employing a mixture of unsupervised machine learning methodologies such as LDA and topic modeling. Looking ahead, in our pursuit to improve automation and establish connections between software requirements and vulnerabilities, our strategy entails adopting a variety of supervised machine learning techniques. This array encompasses Support Vector Machines (SVM), Na\"ive Bayes, random forest, neural networking and eventually transitioning into deep learning for our investigation. In the face of the escalating complexity of cyber security, the question of whether machine learning can enhance the identification of vulnerabilities in diverse software development scenarios is a paramount consideration, offering crucial assistance to software developers in developing secure software.
Topic modeling has emerged as a valuable tool for discovering patterns and topics within large collections of documents. However, when cross-analysis involves multiple parties, data privacy becomes a critical concern. Federated topic modeling has been developed to address this issue, allowing multiple parties to jointly train models while protecting pri-vacy. However, there are communication and performance challenges in the federated sce-nario. In order to solve the above problems, this paper proposes a method to establish a federated topic model while ensuring the privacy of each node, and use neural network model pruning to accelerate the model, where the client periodically sends the model neu-ron cumulative gradients and model weights to the server, and the server prunes the model. To address different requirements, two different methods are proposed to determine the model pruning rate. The first method involves slow pruning throughout the entire model training process, which has limited acceleration effect on the model training process, but can ensure that the pruned model achieves higher accuracy. This can significantly reduce the model inference time during the inference process. The second strategy is to quickly reach the target pruning rate in the early stage of model training in order to accelerate the model training speed, and then continue to train the model with a smaller model size after reaching the target pruning rate. This approach may lose more useful information but can complete the model training faster. Experimental results show that the federated topic model pruning based on the variational autoencoder proposed in this paper can greatly accelerate the model training speed while ensuring the model's performance.
Previous entity disambiguation (ED) methods adopt a discriminative paradigm, where prediction is made based on matching scores between mention context and candidate entities using length-limited encoders. However, these methods often struggle to capture explicit discourse-level dependencies, resulting in incoherent predictions at the abstract level (e.g. topic or category). We propose CoherentED, an ED system equipped with novel designs aimed at enhancing the coherence of entity predictions. Our method first introduces an unsupervised variational autoencoder (VAE) to extract latent topic vectors of context sentences. This approach not only allows the encoder to handle longer documents more effectively, conserves valuable input space, but also keeps a topic-level coherence. Additionally, we incorporate an external category memory, enabling the system to retrieve relevant categories for undecided mentions. By employing step-by-step entity decisions, this design facilitates the modeling of entity-entity interactions, thereby maintaining maximum coherence at the category level. We achieve new state-of-the-art results on popular ED benchmarks, with an average improvement of 1.3 F1 points. Our model demonstrates particularly outstanding performance on challenging long-text scenarios.
Topic modeling is pivotal in discerning hidden semantic structures within texts, thereby generating meaningful descriptive keywords. While innovative techniques like BERTopic and Top2Vec have recently emerged in the forefront, they manifest certain limitations. Our analysis indicates that these methods might not prioritize the refinement of their clustering mechanism, potentially compromising the quality of derived topic clusters. To illustrate, Top2Vec designates the centroids of clustering results to represent topics, whereas BERTopic harnesses C-TF-IDF for its topic extraction.In response to these challenges, we introduce "TF-RDF" (Term Frequency - Relative Document Frequency), a distinctive approach to assess the relevance of terms within a document. Building on the strengths of TF-RDF, we present MPTopic, a clustering algorithm intrinsically driven by the insights of TF-RDF. Through comprehensive evaluation, it is evident that the topic keywords identified with the synergy of MPTopic and TF-RDF outperform those extracted by both BERTopic and Top2Vec.