A single, stationary topic model such as latent Dirichlet allocation is inappropriate for modeling corpora that span long time periods, as the popularity of topics is likely to change over time. A number of models that incorporate time have been proposed, but in general they either exhibit limited forms of temporal variation, or require computationally expensive inference methods. In this paper we propose non-parametric Topics over Time (npTOT), a model for time-varying topics that allows an unbounded number of topics and exible distribution over the temporal variations in those topics' popularity. We develop a collapsed Gibbs sampler for the proposed model and compare against existing models on synthetic and real document sets.

Twitter data is extremely noisy -- each tweet is short, unstructured and with informal language, a challenge for current topic modeling. On the other hand, tweets are accompanied by extra information such as authorship, hashtags and the user-follower network. Exploiting this additional information, we propose the Twitter-Network (TN) topic model to jointly model the text and the social network in a full Bayesian nonparametric way. The TN topic model employs the hierarchical Poisson-Dirichlet processes (PDP) for text modeling and a Gaussian process random function model for social network modeling. We show that the TN topic model significantly outperforms several existing nonparametric models due to its flexibility. Moreover, the TN topic model enables additional informative inference such as authors' interests, hashtag analysis, as well as leading to further applications such as author recommendation, automatic topic labeling and hashtag suggestion. Note our general inference framework can readily be applied to other topic models with embedded PDP nodes.

Topic modeling refers to the task of discovering the underlying thematic structure in a text corpus, where the output is commonly presented as a report of the top terms appearing in each topic. Despite the diversity of topic modeling algorithms that have been proposed, a common challenge in successfully applying these techniques is the selection of an appropriate number of topics for a given corpus. Choosing too few topics will produce results that are overly broad, while choosing too many will result in the "over-clustering" of a corpus into many small, highly-similar topics. In this paper, we propose a term-centric stability analysis strategy to address this issue, the idea being that a model with an appropriate number of topics will be more robust to perturbations in the data. Using a topic modeling approach based on matrix factorization, evaluations performed on a range of corpora show that this strategy can successfully guide the model selection process.

Topic models such as LDA, DocNADE, iDocNADEe have been popular in document analysis. However, the traditional topic models have several limitations including: (1) Bag-of-words (BoW) assumption, where they ignore word ordering, (2) Data sparsity, where the application of topic models is challenging due to limited word co-occurrences, leading to incoherent topics and (3) No Continuous Learning framework for topic learning in lifelong fashion, exploiting historical knowledge (or latent topics) and minimizing catastrophic forgetting. This thesis focuses on addressing the above challenges within neural topic modeling framework. We propose: (1) Contextualized topic model that combines a topic and a language model and introduces linguistic structures (such as word ordering, syntactic and semantic features, etc.) in topic modeling, (2) A novel lifelong learning mechanism into neural topic modeling framework to demonstrate continuous learning in sequential document collections and minimizing catastrophic forgetting. Additionally, we perform a selective data augmentation to alleviate the need for complete historical corpora during data hallucination or replay.

Much of scientific progress stems from previously published findings, but searching through the vast sea of scientific publications is difficult. We often rely on metrics of scholarly authority to find the prominent authors but these authority indices do not differentiate authority based on research topics. We present Latent Topical-Authority Indexing (LTAI) for jointly modeling the topics, citations, and topical authority in a corpus of academic papers. Compared to previous models, LTAI differs in two main aspects. First, it explicitly models the generative process of the citations, rather than treating the citations as given. Second, it models each author's influence on citations of a paper based on the topics of the cited papers, as well as the citing papers. We fit LTAI to four academic corpora: CORA, Arxiv Physics, PNAS, and Citeseer. We compare the performance of LTAI against various baselines, starting with the latent Dirichlet allocation, to the more advanced models including author-link topic model and dynamic author citation topic model. The results show that LTAI achieves improved accuracy over other similar models when predicting words, citations and authors of publications.

Topic models are probabilistic models for discovering topical themes in collections of documents. In real world applications, these models provide us with the means of organizing what would otherwise be unstructured collections. They can help us cluster a huge collection into different topics or find a subset of the collection that resembles the topical theme found in an article at hand. The first wave of topic models developed were able to discover the prevailing topics in a big collection of documents spanning a period of time. It was later realized that these time-invariant models were not capable of modeling 1) the time varying number of topics they discover and 2) the time changing structure of these topics. Few models were developed to address this two deficiencies. The online-hierarchical Dirichlet process models the documents with a time varying number of topics. It varies the structure of the topics over time as well. However, it relies on document order, not timestamps to evolve the model over time. The continuous-time dynamic topic model evolves topic structure in continuous-time. However, it uses a fixed number of topics over time. In this dissertation, I present a model, the continuous-time infinite dynamic topic model, that combines the advantages of these two models 1) the online-hierarchical Dirichlet process, and 2) the continuous-time dynamic topic model. More specifically, the model I present is a probabilistic topic model that does the following: 1) it changes the number of topics over continuous time, and 2) it changes the topic structure over continuous-time. I compared the model I developed with the two other models with different setting values. The results obtained were favorable to my model and showed the need for having a model that has a continuous-time varying number of topics and topic structure.

In real world industrial applications of topic modeling, the ability to capture gigantic conceptual space by learning an ultra-high dimensional topical representation, i.e., the so-called "big model", is becoming the next desideratum after enthusiasms on "big data", especially for fine-grained downstream tasks such as online advertising, where good performances are usually achieved by regression-based predictors built on millions if not billions of input features. The conventional data-parallel approach for training gigantic topic models turns out to be rather inefficient in utilizing the power of parallelism, due to the heavy dependency on a centralized image of "model". Big model size also poses another challenge on the storage, where available model size is bounded by the smallest RAM of nodes. To address these issues, we explore another type of parallelism, namely model-parallelism, which enables training of disjoint blocks of a big topic model in parallel. By integrating data-parallelism with model-parallelism, we show that dependencies between distributed elements can be handled seamlessly, achieving not only faster convergence but also an ability to tackle significantly bigger model size. We describe an architecture for model-parallel inference of LDA, and present a variant of collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithm tailored for it. Experimental results demonstrate the ability of this system to handle topic modeling with unprecedented amount of 200 billion model variables only on a low-end cluster with very limited computational resources and bandwidth.

Correlated topic modeling has been limited to small model and problem sizes due to their high computational cost and poor scaling. In this paper, we propose a new model which learns compact topic embeddings and captures topic correlations through the closeness between the topic vectors. Our method enables efficient inference in the low-dimensional embedding space, reducing previous cubic or quadratic time complexity to linear w.r.t the topic size. We further speedup variational inference with a fast sampler to exploit sparsity of topic occurrence. Extensive experiments show that our approach is capable of handling model and data scales which are several orders of magnitude larger than existing correlation results, without sacrificing modeling quality by providing competitive or superior performance in document classification and retrieval.

Recently, topic modeling has been widely used to discover the abstract topics in text corpora. Most of the existing topic models are based on the assumption of three-layer hierarchical Bayesian structure, i.e. each document is modeled as a probability distribution over topics, and each topic is a probability distribution over words. However, the assumption is not optimal. Intuitively, it's more reasonable to assume that each topic is a probability distribution over concepts, and then each concept is a probability distribution over words, i.e. adding a latent concept layer between topic layer and word layer in traditional three-layer assumption. In this paper, we verify the proposed assumption by incorporating the new assumption in two representative topic models, and obtain two novel topic models. Extensive experiments were conducted among the proposed models and corresponding baselines, and the results show that the proposed models significantly outperform the baselines in terms of case study and perplexity, which means the new assumption is more reasonable than traditional one.

This research proposes a new (old) metric for evaluating goodness of fit in topic models, the coefficient of determination, or $R^2$. Within the context of topic modeling, $R^2$ has the same interpretation that it does when used in a broader class of statistical models. Reporting $R^2$ with topic models addresses two current problems in topic modeling: a lack of standard cross-contextual evaluation metrics for topic modeling and ease of communication with lay audiences. The author proposes that $R^2$ should be reported as a standard metric when constructing topic models.

Document clustering and topic modeling are two closely related tasks which can mutually benefit each other. Topic modeling can project documents into a topic space which facilitates effective document clustering. Cluster labels discovered by document clustering can be incorporated into topic models to extract local topics specific to each cluster and global topics shared by all clusters. In this paper, we propose a multi-grain clustering topic model (MGCTM) which integrates document clustering and topic modeling into a unified framework and jointly performs the two tasks to achieve the overall best performance. Our model tightly couples two components: a mixture component used for discovering latent groups in document collection and a topic model component used for mining multi-grain topics including local topics specific to each cluster and global topics shared across clusters.We employ variational inference to approximate the posterior of hidden variables and learn model parameters. Experiments on two datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our model.

Topic modeling analyzes documents to learn meaningful patterns of words. However, existing topic models fail to learn interpretable topics when working with large and heavy-tailed vocabularies. To this end, we develop the Embedded Topic Model (ETM), a generative model of documents that marries traditional topic models with word embeddings. In particular, it models each word with a categorical distribution whose natural parameter is the inner product between a word embedding and an embedding of its assigned topic. To fit the ETM, we develop an efficient amortized variational inference algorithm. The ETM discovers interpretable topics even with large vocabularies that include rare words and stop words. It outperforms existing document models, such as latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), in terms of both topic quality and predictive performance.

We propose a parsimonious topic model for text corpora. In related models such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA), all words are modeled topic-specifically, even though many words occur with similar frequencies across different topics. Our modeling determines salient words for each topic, which have topic-specific probabilities, with the rest explained by a universal shared model. Further, in LDA all topics are in principle present in every document. By contrast our model gives sparse topic representation, determining the (small) subset of relevant topics for each document. We derive a Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), balancing model complexity and goodness of fit. Here, interestingly, we identify an effective sample size and corresponding penalty specific to each parameter type in our model. We minimize BIC to jointly determine our entire model -- the topic-specific words, document-specific topics, all model parameter values, {\it and} the total number of topics -- in a wholly unsupervised fashion. Results on three text corpora and an image dataset show that our model achieves higher test set likelihood and better agreement with ground-truth class labels, compared to LDA and to a model designed to incorporate sparsity.

Advances on deep generative models have attracted significant research interest in neural topic modeling. The recently proposed Adversarial-neural Topic Model models topics with an adversarially trained generator network and employs Dirichlet prior to capture the semantic patterns in latent topics. It is effective in discovering coherent topics but unable to infer topic distributions for given documents or utilize available document labels. To overcome such limitations, we propose Topic Modeling with Cycle-consistent Adversarial Training (ToMCAT) and its supervised version sToMCAT. ToMCAT employs a generator network to interpret topics and an encoder network to infer document topics. Adversarial training and cycle-consistent constraints are used to encourage the generator and the encoder to produce realistic samples that coordinate with each other. sToMCAT extends ToMCAT by incorporating document labels into the topic modeling process to help discover more coherent topics. The effectiveness of the proposed models is evaluated on unsupervised/supervised topic modeling and text classification. The experimental results show that our models can produce both coherent and informative topics, outperforming a number of competitive baselines.

Topic models have been widely used to learn representations from text and gain insight into document corpora. To perform topic discovery, existing neural models use document bag-of-words (BoW) representation as input followed by variational inference and learn topic-word distribution through reconstructing BoW. Such methods have mainly focused on analysing the effect of enforcing suitable priors on document distribution. However, little importance has been given to encoding improved document features for capturing document semantics better. In this work, we propose a novel framework: TAN-NTM which models document as a sequence of tokens instead of BoW at the input layer and processes it through an LSTM whose output is used to perform variational inference followed by BoW decoding. We apply attention on LSTM outputs to empower the model to attend on relevant words which convey topic related cues. We hypothesise that attention can be performed effectively if done in a topic guided manner and establish this empirically through ablations. We factor in topic-word distribution to perform topic aware attention achieving state-of-the-art results with ~9-15 percentage improvement over score of existing SOTA topic models in NPMI coherence metric on four benchmark datasets - 20NewsGroup, Yelp, AGNews, DBpedia. TAN-NTM also obtains better document classification accuracy owing to learning improved document-topic features. We qualitatively discuss that attention mechanism enables unsupervised discovery of keywords. Motivated by this, we further show that our proposed framework achieves state-of-the-art performance on topic aware supervised generation of keyphrases on StackExchange and Weibo datasets.

Certain type of documents such as tweets are collected by specifying a set of keywords. As topics of interest change with time it is beneficial to adjust keywords dynamically. The challenge is that these need to be specified ahead of knowing the forthcoming documents and the underlying topics. The future topics should mimic past topics of interest yet there should be some novelty in them. We develop a keyword-based topic model that dynamically selects a subset of keywords to be used to collect future documents. The generative process first selects keywords and then the underlying documents based on the specified keywords. The model is trained by using a variational lower bound and stochastic gradient optimization. The inference consists of finding a subset of keywords where given a subset the model predicts the underlying topic-word matrix for the unknown forthcoming documents. We compare the keyword topic model against a benchmark model using viral predictions of tweets combined with a topic model. The keyword-based topic model outperforms this sophisticated baseline model by 67%.

Topic models analyze text from a set of documents. Documents are modeled as a mixture of topics, with topics defined as probability distributions on words. Inferences of interest include the most probable topics and characterization of a topic by inspecting the topic's highest probability words. Motivated by a data set of web pages (documents) nested in web sites, we extend the Poisson factor analysis topic model to hierarchical topic presence models for analyzing text from documents nested in known groups. We incorporate an unknown binary topic presence parameter for each topic at the web site and/or the web page level to allow web sites and/or web pages to be sparse mixtures of topics and we propose logistic regression modeling of topic presence conditional on web site covariates. We introduce local topics into the Poisson factor analysis framework, where each web site has a local topic not found in other web sites. Two data augmentation methods, the Chinese table distribution and P\'{o}lya-Gamma augmentation, aid in constructing our sampler. We analyze text from web pages nested in United States local public health department web sites to abstract topical information and understand national patterns in topic presence.

Recent years have witnessed a surge of interests of using neural topic models for automatic topic extraction from text, since they avoid the complicated mathematical derivations for model inference as in traditional topic models such as Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). However, these models either typically assume improper prior (e.g. Gaussian or Logistic Normal) over latent topic space or could not infer topic distribution for a given document. To address these limitations, we propose a neural topic modeling approach, called Bidirectional Adversarial Topic (BAT) model, which represents the first attempt of applying bidirectional adversarial training for neural topic modeling. The proposed BAT builds a two-way projection between the document-topic distribution and the document-word distribution. It uses a generator to capture the semantic patterns from texts and an encoder for topic inference. Furthermore, to incorporate word relatedness information, the Bidirectional Adversarial Topic model with Gaussian (Gaussian-BAT) is extended from BAT. To verify the effectiveness of BAT and Gaussian-BAT, three benchmark corpora are used in our experiments. The experimental results show that BAT and Gaussian-BAT obtain more coherent topics, outperforming several competitive baselines. Moreover, when performing text clustering based on the extracted topics, our models outperform all the baselines, with more significant improvements achieved by Gaussian-BAT where an increase of near 6\% is observed in accuracy.

Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) based topic modeling methods do not rely on model- or data-assumptions much. However, they are usually formulated as difficult optimization problems, which may suffer from bad local minima and high computational complexity. In this paper, we propose a deep NMF (DNMF) topic modeling framework to alleviate the aforementioned problems. It first applies an unsupervised deep learning method to learn latent hierarchical structures of documents, under the assumption that if we could learn a good representation of documents by, e.g. a deep model, then the topic word discovery problem can be boosted. Then, it takes the output of the deep model to constrain a topic-document distribution for the discovery of the discriminant topic words, which not only improves the efficacy but also reduces the computational complexity over conventional unsupervised NMF methods. We constrain the topic-document distribution in three ways, which takes the advantages of the three major sub-categories of NMF -- basic NMF, structured NMF, and constrained NMF respectively. To overcome the weaknesses of deep neural networks in unsupervised topic modeling, we adopt a non-neural-network deep model -- multilayer bootstrap network. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a deep NMF model is used for unsupervised topic modeling. We have compared the proposed method with a number of representative references covering major branches of topic modeling on a variety of real-world text corpora. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method under various evaluation metrics.