Annotating biomedical images for supervised learning is a complex and labor-intensive task due to data diversity and its intricate nature. In this paper, we propose an innovative method, the efficient one-pass selective annotation (EPOSA), that significantly reduces the annotation burden while maintaining robust model performance. Our approach employs a variational autoencoder (VAE) to extract salient features from unannotated images, which are subsequently clustered using the DBSCAN algorithm. This process groups similar images together, forming distinct clusters. We then use a two-stage sample selection algorithm, called representative selection (RepSel), to form a selected dataset. The first stage is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling technique to select representative samples from each cluster for annotations. This selection process is the second stage, which is guided by the principle of maximizing intra-cluster mutual information and minimizing inter-cluster mutual information. This ensures a diverse set of features for model training and minimizes outlier inclusion. The selected samples are used to train a VGG-16 network for image classification. Experimental results on the Med-MNIST dataset demonstrate that our proposed EPOSA outperforms random selection and other state-of-the-art methods under the same annotation budget, presenting a promising direction for efficient and effective annotation in medical image analysis.
Development of MR harmonization has enabled different contrast MRIs to be synthesized while preserving the underlying anatomy. In this paper, we use image harmonization to explore the impact of different T1-w MR contrasts on a state-of-the-art ventricle parcellation algorithm VParNet. We identify an optimal operating contrast (OOC) for ventricle parcellation; by showing that the performance of a pretrained VParNet can be boosted by adjusting contrast to the OOC.
Data-driven thalamic nuclei parcellation depends on high-quality manual annotations. However, the small size and low contrast changes among thalamic nuclei, yield annotations that are often incomplete, noisy, or ambiguously labelled. To train a robust thalamic nuclei parcellation model with noisy annotations, we propose a label propagation algorithm based on random walker to refine the annotations before model training. A two-step model was trained to generate first the whole thalamus and then the nuclei masks. We conducted experiments on a mild traumatic brain injury~(mTBI) dataset with noisy thalamic nuclei annotations. Our model outperforms current state-of-the-art thalamic nuclei parcellations by a clear margin. We believe our method can also facilitate the training of other parcellation models with noisy labels.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus~(NPH) is a brain disorder associated with enlarged ventricles and multiple cognitive and motor symptoms. The degree of ventricular enlargement can be measured using magnetic resonance images~(MRIs) and characterized quantitatively using the Evan's ratio (ER). Automatic computation of ER is desired to avoid the extra time and variations associated with manual measurements on MRI. Because shunt surgery is often used to treat NPH, it is necessary that this process be robust to image artifacts caused by the shunt and related implants. In this paper, we propose a 3D regions-of-interest aware (ROI-aware) network for segmenting the ventricles. The method achieves state-of-the-art performance on both pre-surgery MRIs and post-surgery MRIs with artifacts. Based on our segmentation results, we also describe an automated approach to compute ER from these results. Experimental results on multiple datasets demonstrate the potential of the proposed method to assist clinicians in the diagnosis and management of NPH.