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Recently, large-scale pre-trained vision-language models have presented benefits for alleviating class imbalance in long-tailed recognition. However, the long-tailed data distribution can corrupt the representation space, where the distance between head and tail categories is much larger than the distance between two tail categories. This uneven feature space distribution causes the model to exhibit unclear and inseparable decision boundaries on the uniformly distributed test set, which lowers its performance. To address these challenges, we propose the uniformly category prototype-guided vision-language framework to effectively mitigate feature space bias caused by data imbalance. Especially, we generate a set of category prototypes uniformly distributed on a hypersphere. Category prototype-guided mechanism for image-text matching makes the features of different classes converge to these distinct and uniformly distributed category prototypes, which maintain a uniform distribution in the feature space, and improve class boundaries. Additionally, our proposed irrelevant text filtering and attribute enhancement module allows the model to ignore irrelevant noisy text and focus more on key attribute information, thereby enhancing the robustness of our framework. In the image recognition fine-tuning stage, to address the positive bias problem of the learnable classifier, we design the class feature prototype-guided classifier, which compensates for the performance of tail classes while maintaining the performance of head classes. Our method outperforms previous vision-language methods for long-tailed learning work by a large margin and achieves state-of-the-art performance.

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We present a novel approach for relocalization or place recognition, a fundamental problem to be solved in many robotics, automation, and AR applications. Rather than relying on often unstable appearance information, we consider a situation in which the reference map is given in the form of localized objects. Our localization framework relies on 3D semantic object detections, which are then associated to objects in the map. Possible pair-wise association sets are grown based on hierarchical clustering using a merge metric that evaluates spatial compatibility. The latter notably uses information about relative object configurations, which is invariant with respect to global transformations. Association sets are furthermore updated and expanded as the camera incrementally explores the environment and detects further objects. We test our algorithm in several challenging situations including dynamic scenes, large view-point changes, and scenes with repeated instances. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach outperforms prior art in terms of both robustness and accuracy.

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Digital image watermarking, which is a technique for invisibly embedding information into an image, is used in fields such as property rights protection. In recent years, some research has proposed the use of neural networks to add watermarks to natural images. We take StegaStamp as an example for our research. Whether facing traditional image editing methods, such as brightness, contrast, saturation adjustment, or style change like 1-bit conversion, GAN, StegaStamp has robustness far beyond traditional watermarking techniques, but it still has two drawbacks: it is vulnerable to cropping and is hard to train. We found that the causes of vulnerability to cropping is not the loss of information on the edge, but the movement of watermark position. By explicitly introducing the perturbation of cropping into the training, the cropping resistance is significantly improved. For the problem of difficult training, we introduce instance normalization to solve the vanishing gradient, set losses' weights as learnable parameters to reduce the number of hyperparameters, and use sigmoid to restrict pixel values of the generated image.

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The chart of the nuclides is limited by particle drip lines beyond which nuclear stability to proton or neutron emission is lost. Predicting the range of particle-bound isotopes poses an appreciable challenge for nuclear theory as it involves extreme extrapolations of nuclear masses beyond the regions where experimental information is available. Still, quantified extrapolations are crucial for a variety of applications, including the modeling of stellar nucleosynthesis. We use microscopic nuclear mass models and Bayesian methodology to provide quantified predictions of proton and neutron separation energies as well as Bayesian probabilities of existence throughout the nuclear landscape all the way to the particle drip lines. We apply nuclear density functional theory with several energy density functionals. To account for uncertainties, Bayesian Gaussian processes are trained on the separation-energy residuals for each individual model, and the resulting predictions are combined via Bayesian model averaging. This framework allows to account for systematic and statistical uncertainties and propagate them to extrapolative predictions. We characterize the drip-line regions where the probability that the nucleus is particle-bound decreases from $1$ to $0$. In these regions, we provide quantified predictions for one- and two-nucleon separation energies. According to our Bayesian model averaging analysis, 7759 nuclei with $Z\leq 119$ have a probability of existence $\geq 0.5$. The extrapolations obtained in this study will be put through stringent tests when new experimental information on exotic nuclei becomes available. In this respect, the quantified landscape of nuclear existence obtained in this study should be viewed as a dynamical prediction that will be fine-tuned when new experimental information and improved global mass models become available.

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The limits of the nuclear landscape are determined by nuclear binding energies. Beyond the proton drip lines, where the separation energy becomes negative, there is not enough binding energy to prevent protons from escaping the nucleus. Predicting properties of unstable nuclear states in the vast territory of proton emitters poses an appreciable challenge for nuclear theory as it often involves far extrapolations. In addition, significant discrepancies between nuclear models in the proton-rich territory call for quantified predictions. With the help of Bayesian methodology, we mix a family of nuclear mass models corrected with statistical emulators trained on the experimental mass measurements, in the proton-rich region of the nuclear chart. Separation energies were computed within nuclear density functional theory using several Skyrme and Gogny energy density functionals. We also considered mass predictions based on two models used in astrophysical studies. Quantified predictions were obtained for each model using Bayesian Gaussian processes trained on separation-energy residuals and combined via Bayesian model averaging. We obtained a good agreement between averaged predictions of statistically corrected models and experiment. In particular, we quantified model results for one- and two-proton separation energies and derived probabilities of proton emission. This information enabled us to produce a quantified landscape of proton-rich nuclei. The most promising candidates for two-proton decay studies have been identified. The methodology used in this work has broad applications to model-based extrapolations of various nuclear observables. It also provides a reliable uncertainty quantification of theoretical predictions.

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The region of heavy calcium isotopes forms the frontier of experimental and theoretical nuclear structure research where the basic concepts of nuclear physics are put to stringent test. The recent discovery of the extremely neutron-rich nuclei around $^{60}$Ca [Tarasov, 2018] and the experimental determination of masses for $^{55-57}$Ca (Michimasa, 2018] provide unique information about the binding energy surface in this region. To assess the impact of these experimental discoveries on the nuclear landscape's extent, we use global mass models and statistical machine learning to make predictions, with quantified levels of certainty, for bound nuclides between Si and Ti. Using a Bayesian model averaging analysis based on Gaussian-process-based extrapolations we introduce the posterior probability $p_{ex}$ for each nucleus to be bound to neutron emission. We find that extrapolations for drip-line locations, at which the nuclear binding ends, are consistent across the global mass models used, in spite of significant variations between their raw predictions. In particular, considering the current experimental information and current global mass models, we predict that $^{68}$Ca has an average posterior probability ${p_{ex}\approx76}$% to be bound to two-neutron emission while the nucleus $^{61}$Ca is likely to decay by emitting a neutron (${p_{ex}\approx 46}$ %).

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Most problems involving simultaneous localization and mapping can nowadays be solved using one of two fundamentally different approaches. The traditional approach is given by a least-squares objective, which minimizes many local photometric or geometric residuals over explicitly parametrized structure and camera parameters. Unmodeled effects violating the lambertian surface assumption or geometric invariances of individual residuals are encountered through statistical averaging or the addition of robust kernels and smoothness terms. Aiming at more accurate measurement models and the inclusion of higher-order shape priors, the community more recently shifted its attention to deep end-to-end models for solving geometric localization and mapping problems. However, at test-time, these feed-forward models ignore the more traditional geometric or photometric consistency terms, thus leading to a low ability to recover fine details and potentially complete failure in corner case scenarios. With an application to dense object modeling from RGBD images, our work aims at taking the best of both worlds by embedding modern higher-order object shape priors into classical iterative residual minimization objectives. We demonstrate a general ability to improve mapping accuracy with respect to each modality alone, and present a successful application to real data.

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The mass, or binding energy, is the basis property of the atomic nucleus. It determines its stability, and reaction and decay rates. Quantifying the nuclear binding is important for understanding the origin of elements in the universe. The astrophysical processes responsible for the nucleosynthesis in stars often take place far from the valley of stability, where experimental masses are not known. In such cases, missing nuclear information must be provided by theoretical predictions using extreme extrapolations. Bayesian machine learning techniques can be applied to improve predictions by taking full advantage of the information contained in the deviations between experimental and calculated masses. We consider 10 global models based on nuclear Density Functional Theory as well as two more phenomenological mass models. The emulators of S2n residuals and credibility intervals defining theoretical error bars are constructed using Bayesian Gaussian processes and Bayesian neural networks. We consider a large training dataset pertaining to nuclei whose masses were measured before 2003. For the testing datasets, we considered those exotic nuclei whose masses have been determined after 2003. We then carried out extrapolations towards the 2n dripline. While both Gaussian processes and Bayesian neural networks reduce the rms deviation from experiment significantly, GP offers a better and much more stable performance. The increase in the predictive power is quite astonishing: the resulting rms deviations from experiment on the testing dataset are similar to those of more phenomenological models. The empirical coverage probability curves we obtain match very well the reference values which is highly desirable to ensure honesty of uncertainty quantification, and the estimated credibility intervals on predictions make it possible to evaluate predictive power of individual models.

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