Autonomous driving technology nowadays targets to level 4 or beyond, but the researchers are faced with some limitations for developing reliable driving algorithms in diverse challenges. To promote the autonomous vehicles to spread widely, it is important to address safety issues on this technology. Among various safety concerns, the sensor blockage problem by severe weather conditions can be one of the most frequent threats for multi-task learning based perception algorithms during autonomous driving. To handle this problem, the importance of the generation of proper datasets is becoming more significant. In this paper, a synthetic road dataset with sensor blockage generated from real road dataset BDD100K is suggested in the format of BDD100K annotation. Rain streaks for each frame were made by an experimentally established equation and translated utilizing the image-to-image translation network based on style transfer. Using this dataset, the degradation of the diverse multi-task networks for autonomous driving, such as lane detection, driving area segmentation, and traffic object detection, has been thoroughly evaluated and analyzed. The tendency of the performance degradation of deep neural network-based perception systems for autonomous vehicle has been analyzed in depth. Finally, we discuss the limitation and the future directions of the deep neural network-based perception algorithms and autonomous driving dataset generation based on image-to-image translation.
Uncertainty learning and quantification of models are crucial tasks to enhance the trustworthiness of the models. Importantly, the recent surge of generative language models (GLMs) emphasizes the need for reliable uncertainty quantification due to the concerns on generating hallucinated facts. In this paper, we propose to learn neural prediction set models that comes with the probably approximately correct (PAC) guarantee for quantifying the uncertainty of GLMs. Unlike existing prediction set models, which are parameterized by a scalar value, we propose to parameterize prediction sets via neural networks, which achieves more precise uncertainty quantification but still satisfies the PAC guarantee. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on four types of language datasets and six types of models by showing that our method improves the quantified uncertainty by $63\%$ on average, compared to a standard baseline method.
Recently, deep learning models have shown the potential to predict breast cancer risk and enable targeted screening strategies, but current models do not consider the change in the breast over time. In this paper, we present a new method, PRIME+, for breast cancer risk prediction that leverages prior mammograms using a transformer decoder, outperforming a state-of-the-art risk prediction method that only uses mammograms from a single time point. We validate our approach on a dataset with 16,113 exams and further demonstrate that it effectively captures patterns of changes from prior mammograms, such as changes in breast density, resulting in improved short-term and long-term breast cancer risk prediction. Experimental results show that our model achieves a statistically significant improvement in performance over the state-of-the-art based model, with a C-index increase from 0.68 to 0.73 (p < 0.05) on held-out test sets.
Blockchains with smart contracts are distributed ledger systems which achieve block state consistency among distributed nodes by only allowing deterministic operations of smart contracts. However, the power of smart contracts is enabled by interacting with stochastic off-chain data, which in turn opens the possibility to undermine the block state consistency. To address this issue, an oracle smart contract is used to provide a single consistent source of external data; but, simultaneously this introduces a single point of failure, which is called the oracle problem. To address the oracle problem, we propose an adaptive conformal consensus (ACon$^2$) algorithm, which derives consensus from multiple oracle contracts via the recent advance in online uncertainty quantification learning. In particular, the proposed algorithm returns a consensus set, which quantifies the uncertainty of data and achieves a desired correctness guarantee in the presence of Byzantine adversaries and distribution shift. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm on two price datasets and an Ethereum case study. In particular, the Solidity implementation of the proposed algorithm shows the practicality of the proposed algorithm, implying that online machine learning algorithms are applicable to address issues in blockchains.
Memory-safety bugs introduce critical software-security issues. Rust provides memory-safe mechanisms to avoid memory-safety bugs in programming, while still allowing unsafe escape hatches via unsafe code. However, the unsafe code that enhances the usability of Rust provides clear spots for finding memory-safety bugs in Rust source code. In this paper, we claim that these unsafe spots can still be identifiable in Rust binary code via machine learning and be leveraged for finding memory-safety bugs. To support our claim, we propose the tool textttrustspot, that enables reverse engineering to learn an unsafe classifier that proposes a list of functions in Rust binaries for downstream analysis. We empirically show that the function proposals by textttrustspot can recall $92.92\%$ of memory-safety bugs, while it covers only $16.79\%$ of the entire binary code. As an application, we demonstrate that the function proposals are used in targeted fuzzing on Rust packages, which contribute to reducing the fuzzing time compared to non-targeted fuzzing.
The accurate localization of inserted medical tubes and parts of human anatomy is a common problem when analyzing chest radiographs and something deep neural networks could potentially automate. However, many foreign objects like tubes and various anatomical structures are small in comparison to the entire chest X-ray, which leads to severely unbalanced data and makes training deep neural networks difficult. In this paper, we present a simple yet effective `Only-One-Object-Exists' (OOOE) assumption to improve the deep network's ability to localize small landmarks in chest radiographs. The OOOE enables us to recast the localization problem as a classification problem and we can replace commonly used continuous regression techniques with a multi-class discrete objective. We validate our approach using a large scale proprietary dataset of over 100K radiographs as well as publicly available RANZCR-CLiP Kaggle Challenge dataset and show that our method consistently outperforms commonly used regression-based detection models as well as commonly used pixel-wise classification methods. Additionally, we find that the method using the OOOE assumption generalizes to multiple detection problems in chest X-rays and the resulting model shows state-of-the-art performance on detecting various tube tips inserted to the patient as well as patient anatomy.
A wide range of binary analysis applications, such as bug discovery, malware analysis and code clone detection, require recovery of contextual meanings on a binary code. Recently, binary analysis techniques based on machine learning have been proposed to automatically reconstruct the code representation of a binary instead of manually crafting specifics of the analysis algorithm. However, the existing approaches utilizing machine learning are still specialized to solve one domain of problems, rendering recreation of models for different types of binary analysis. In this paper, we propose DeepSemantic utilizing BERT in producing the semantic-aware code representation of a binary code. To this end, we introduce well-balanced instruction normalization that holds rich information for each of instructions yet minimizing an out-of-vocabulary (OOV) problem. DeepSemantic has been carefully designed based on our study with large swaths of binaries. Besides, DeepSemantic leverages the essence of the BERT architecture into re-purposing a pre-trained generic model that is readily available as a one-time processing, followed by quickly applying specific downstream tasks with a fine-tuning process. We demonstrate DeepSemantic with two downstream tasks, namely, binary similarity comparison and compiler provenance (i.e., compiler and optimization level) prediction. Our experimental results show that the binary similarity model outperforms two state-of-the-art binary similarity tools, DeepBinDiff and SAFE, 49.84% and 15.83% on average, respectively.