It is usually infeasible to fit and train an entire large deep neural network (DNN) model using a single edge device due to the limited resources. To facilitate intelligent applications across edge devices, researchers have proposed partitioning a large model into several sub-models, and deploying each of them to a different edge device to collaboratively train a DNN model. However, the communication overhead caused by the large amount of data transmitted from one device to another during training, as well as the sub-optimal partition point due to the inaccurate latency prediction of computation at each edge device can significantly slow down training. In this paper, we propose AccEPT, an acceleration scheme for accelerating the edge collaborative pipeline-parallel training. In particular, we propose a light-weight adaptive latency predictor to accurately estimate the computation latency of each layer at different devices, which also adapts to unseen devices through continuous learning. Therefore, the proposed latency predictor leads to better model partitioning which balances the computation loads across participating devices. Moreover, we propose a bit-level computation-efficient data compression scheme to compress the data to be transmitted between devices during training. Our numerical results demonstrate that our proposed acceleration approach is able to significantly speed up edge pipeline parallel training up to 3 times faster in the considered experimental settings.
Zero-shot anomaly detection (ZSAD) requires detection models trained using auxiliary data to detect anomalies without any training sample in a target dataset. It is a crucial task when training data is not accessible due to various concerns, \eg, data privacy, yet it is challenging since the models need to generalize to anomalies across different domains where the appearance of foreground objects, abnormal regions, and background features, such as defects/tumors on different products/organs, can vary significantly. Recently large pre-trained vision-language models (VLMs), such as CLIP, have demonstrated strong zero-shot recognition ability in various vision tasks, including anomaly detection. However, their ZSAD performance is weak since the VLMs focus more on modeling the class semantics of the foreground objects rather than the abnormality/normality in the images. In this paper we introduce a novel approach, namely AnomalyCLIP, to adapt CLIP for accurate ZSAD across different domains. The key insight of AnomalyCLIP is to learn object-agnostic text prompts that capture generic normality and abnormality in an image regardless of its foreground objects. This allows our model to focus on the abnormal image regions rather than the object semantics, enabling generalized normality and abnormality recognition on diverse types of objects. Large-scale experiments on 17 real-world anomaly detection datasets show that AnomalyCLIP achieves superior zero-shot performance of detecting and segmenting anomalies in datasets of highly diverse class semantics from various defect inspection and medical imaging domains. Code will be made available at https://github.com/zqhang/AnomalyCLIP.
Perfect synchronization in distributed machine learning problems is inefficient and even impossible due to the existence of latency, package losses and stragglers. We propose a Robust Fully-Asynchronous Stochastic Gradient Tracking method (R-FAST), where each device performs local computation and communication at its own pace without any form of synchronization. Different from existing asynchronous distributed algorithms, R-FAST can eliminate the impact of data heterogeneity across devices and allow for packet losses by employing a robust gradient tracking strategy that relies on properly designed auxiliary variables for tracking and buffering the overall gradient vector. More importantly, the proposed method utilizes two spanning-tree graphs for communication so long as both share at least one common root, enabling flexible designs in communication architectures. We show that R-FAST converges in expectation to a neighborhood of the optimum with a geometric rate for smooth and strongly convex objectives; and to a stationary point with a sublinear rate for general non-convex settings. Extensive experiments demonstrate that R-FAST runs 1.5-2 times faster than synchronous benchmark algorithms, such as Ring-AllReduce and D-PSGD, while still achieving comparable accuracy, and outperforms existing asynchronous SOTA algorithms, such as AD-PSGD and OSGP, especially in the presence of stragglers.
Differentiable architecture search (DARTS) has been a mainstream direction in automatic machine learning. Since the discovery that original DARTS will inevitably converge to poor architectures, recent works alleviate this by either designing rule-based architecture selection techniques or incorporating complex regularization techniques, abandoning the simplicity of the original DARTS that selects architectures based on the largest parametric value, namely $\alpha$. Moreover, we find that all the previous attempts only rely on classification labels, hence learning only single modal information and limiting the representation power of the shared network. To this end, we propose to additionally inject semantic information by formulating a patch recovery approach. Specifically, we exploit the recent trending masked image modeling and do not abandon the guidance from the downstream tasks during the search phase. Our method surpasses all previous DARTS variants and achieves state-of-the-art results on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and ImageNet without complex manual-designed strategies.
Implicit neural representations have shown promising potential for the 3D scene reconstruction. Recent work applies it to autonomous 3D reconstruction by learning information gain for view path planning. Effective as it is, the computation of the information gain is expensive, and compared with that using volumetric representations, collision checking using the implicit representation for a 3D point is much slower. In the paper, we propose to 1) leverage a neural network as an implicit function approximator for the information gain field and 2) combine the implicit fine-grained representation with coarse volumetric representations to improve efficiency. Further with the improved efficiency, we propose a novel informative path planning based on a graph-based planner. Our method demonstrates significant improvements in the reconstruction quality and planning efficiency compared with autonomous reconstructions with implicit and explicit representations. We deploy the method on a real UAV and the results show that our method can plan informative views and reconstruct a scene with high quality.
Multivariate time series anomaly detection has been extensively studied under the semi-supervised setting, where a training dataset with all normal instances is required. However, preparing such a dataset is very laborious since each single data instance should be fully guaranteed to be normal. It is, therefore, desired to explore multivariate time series anomaly detection methods based on the dataset without any label knowledge. In this paper, we propose MTGFlow, an unsupervised anomaly detection approach for Multivariate Time series anomaly detection via dynamic Graph and entity-aware normalizing Flow, leaning only on a widely accepted hypothesis that abnormal instances exhibit sparse densities than the normal. However, the complex interdependencies among entities and the diverse inherent characteristics of each entity pose significant challenges on the density estimation, let alone to detect anomalies based on the estimated possibility distribution. To tackle these problems, we propose to learn the mutual and dynamic relations among entities via a graph structure learning model, which helps to model accurate distribution of multivariate time series. Moreover, taking account of distinct characteristics of the individual entities, an entity-aware normalizing flow is developed to describe each entity into a parameterized normal distribution, thereby producing fine-grained density estimation. Incorporating these two strategies, MTGFlowachieves superior anomaly detection performance. Experiments on the real-world datasets are conducted, demonstrating that MTGFlow outperforms the state-of-the-art (SOTA) by 5.0% and 1.6% AUROC for SWaT and WADI datasets respectively. Also, through the anomaly scores contributed by individual entities, MTGFlow can provide explanation information for the detection results.
Implicit neural representations have shown compelling results in offline 3D reconstruction and also recently demonstrated the potential for online SLAM systems. However, applying them to autonomous 3D reconstruction, where robots are required to explore a scene and plan a view path for the reconstruction, has not been studied. In this paper, we explore for the first time the possibility of using implicit neural representations for autonomous 3D scene reconstruction by addressing two key challenges: 1) seeking a criterion to measure the quality of the candidate viewpoints for the view planning based on the new representations, and 2) learning the criterion from data that can generalize to different scenes instead of hand-crafting one. For the first challenge, a proxy of Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) is proposed to quantify a viewpoint quality. The proxy is acquired by treating the color of a spatial point in a scene as a random variable under a Gaussian distribution rather than a deterministic one; the variance of the distribution quantifies the uncertainty of the reconstruction and composes the proxy. For the second challenge, the proxy is optimized jointly with the parameters of an implicit neural network for the scene. With the proposed view quality criterion, we can then apply the new representations to autonomous 3D reconstruction. Our method demonstrates significant improvements on various metrics for the rendered image quality and the geometry quality of the reconstructed 3D models when compared with variants using TSDF or reconstruction without view planning.
In an asynchronous federated learning framework, the server updates the global model once it receives an update from a client instead of waiting for all the updates to arrive as in the synchronous setting. This allows heterogeneous devices with varied computing power to train the local models without pausing, thereby speeding up the training process. However, it introduces the stale model problem, where the newly arrived update was calculated based on a set of stale weights that are older than the current global model, which may hurt the convergence of the model. In this paper, we present an asynchronous federated learning framework with a proposed adaptive weight aggregation algorithm, referred to as AsyncFedED. To the best of our knowledge this aggregation method is the first to take the staleness of the arrived gradients, measured by the Euclidean distance between the stale model and the current global model, and the number of local epochs that have been performed, into account. Assuming general non-convex loss functions, we prove the convergence of the proposed method theoretically. Numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed AsyncFedED in terms of the convergence rate and model accuracy compared to the existing methods for three considered tasks.