Collaborative filtering (CF) has been proven to be one of the most effective techniques for recommendation. Among all CF approaches, SimpleX is the state-of-the-art method that adopts a novel loss function and a proper number of negative samples. However, there is no work that optimizes SimpleX on multi-core CPUs, leading to limited performance. To this end, we perform an in-depth profiling and analysis of existing SimpleX implementations and identify their performance bottlenecks including (1) irregular memory accesses, (2) unnecessary memory copies, and (3) redundant computations. To address these issues, we propose an efficient CF training system (called HEAT) that fully enables the multi-level caching and multi-threading capabilities of modern CPUs. Specifically, the optimization of HEAT is threefold: (1) It tiles the embedding matrix to increase data locality and reduce cache misses (thus reduces read latency); (2) It optimizes stochastic gradient descent (SGD) with sampling by parallelizing vector products instead of matrix-matrix multiplications, in particular the similarity computation therein, to avoid memory copies for matrix data preparation; and (3) It aggressively reuses intermediate results from the forward phase in the backward phase to alleviate redundant computation. Evaluation on five widely used datasets with both x86- and ARM-architecture processors shows that HEAT achieves up to 45.2X speedup over existing CPU solution and 4.5X speedup and 7.9X cost reduction in Cloud over existing GPU solution with NVIDIA V100 GPU.
Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.
The past several years have witnessed the success of transformer-based models, and their scale and application scenarios continue to grow aggressively. The current landscape of transformer models is increasingly diverse: the model size varies drastically with the largest being of hundred-billion parameters; the model characteristics differ due to the sparsity introduced by the Mixture-of-Experts; the target application scenarios can be latency-critical or throughput-oriented; the deployment hardware could be single- or multi-GPU systems with different types of memory and storage, etc. With such increasing diversity and the fast-evolving pace of transformer models, designing a highly performant and efficient inference system is extremely challenging. In this paper, we present DeepSpeed Inference, a comprehensive system solution for transformer model inference to address the above-mentioned challenges. DeepSpeed Inference consists of (1) a multi-GPU inference solution to minimize latency while maximizing the throughput of both dense and sparse transformer models when they fit in aggregate GPU memory, and (2) a heterogeneous inference solution that leverages CPU and NVMe memory in addition to the GPU memory and compute to enable high inference throughput with large models which do not fit in aggregate GPU memory. DeepSpeed Inference reduces latency by up to 7.3X over the state-of-the-art for latency-oriented scenarios and increases throughput by over 1.5x for throughput-oriented scenarios. Moreover, it enables trillion parameter scale inference under real-time latency constraints by leveraging hundreds of GPUs, an unprecedented scale for inference. It can inference 25x larger models than with GPU-only solutions, while delivering a high throughput of 84 TFLOPS (over $50\%$ of A6000 peak).
Pretrained general-purpose language models can achieve state-of-the-art accuracies in various natural language processing domains by adapting to downstream tasks via zero-shot, few-shot and fine-tuning techniques. Because of their success, the size of these models has increased rapidly, requiring high-performance hardware, software, and algorithmic techniques to enable training such large models. As the result of a joint effort between Microsoft and NVIDIA, we present details on the training of the largest monolithic transformer based language model, Megatron-Turing NLG 530B (MT-NLG), with 530 billion parameters. In this paper, we first focus on the infrastructure as well as the 3D parallelism methodology used to train this model using DeepSpeed and Megatron. Next, we detail the training process, the design of our training corpus, and our data curation techniques, which we believe is a key ingredient to the success of the model. Finally, we discuss various evaluation results, as well as other interesting observations and new properties exhibited by MT-NLG. We demonstrate that MT-NLG achieves superior zero-, one-, and few-shot learning accuracies on several NLP benchmarks and establishes new state-of-the-art results. We believe that our contributions will help further the development of large-scale training infrastructures, large-scale language models, and natural language generations.
* Shaden Smith and Mostofa Patwary contributed equally
In the last three years, the largest dense deep learning models have grown over 1000x to reach hundreds of billions of parameters, while the GPU memory has only grown by 5x (16 GB to 80 GB). Therefore, the growth in model scale has been supported primarily though system innovations that allow large models to fit in the aggregate GPU memory of multiple GPUs. However, we are getting close to the GPU memory wall. It requires 800 NVIDIA V100 GPUs just to fit a trillion parameter model for training, and such clusters are simply out of reach for most data scientists. In addition, training models at that scale requires complex combinations of parallelism techniques that puts a big burden on the data scientists to refactor their model. In this paper we present ZeRO-Infinity, a novel heterogeneous system technology that leverages GPU, CPU, and NVMe memory to allow for unprecedented model scale on limited resources without requiring model code refactoring. At the same time it achieves excellent training throughput and scalability, unencumbered by the limited CPU or NVMe bandwidth. ZeRO-Infinity can fit models with tens and even hundreds of trillions of parameters for training on current generation GPU clusters. It can be used to fine-tune trillion parameter models on a single NVIDIA DGX-2 node, making large models more accessible. In terms of training throughput and scalability, it sustains over 25 petaflops on 512 NVIDIA V100 GPUs(40% of peak), while also demonstrating super linear scalability. An open source implementation of ZeRO-Infinity is available through DeepSpeed, a deep learning optimization library that makes distributed training easy, efficient, and effective.
Label propagation on the tensor product of multiple graphs can infer multi-relations among the entities across the graphs by learning labels in a tensor. However, the tensor formulation is only empirically scalable up to three graphs due to the exponential complexity of computing tensors. In this paper, we propose an optimization formulation and a scalable Lowrank Tensor-based Label Propagation algorithm (LowrankTLP). The optimization formulation minimizes the rank-k approximation error for computing the closed-form solution of label propagation on a tensor product graph with efficient tensor computations used in LowrankTLP. LowrankTLP takes either a sparse tensor of known multi-relations or pairwise relations between each pair of graphs as the input to infer unknown multi-relations by semi-supervised learning on the tensor product graph. We also accelerate LowrankTLP with parallel tensor computation which enabled label propagation on a tensor product of 100 graphs of size 1000 within 150 seconds in simulation. LowrankTLP was also successfully applied to multi-relational learning for predicting author-paper-venue in publication records, alignment of several protein-protein interaction networks across species and alignment of segmented regions across up to 7 CT scan images. The experiments prove that LowrankTLP indeed well approximates the original label propagation with high scalability. Source code: https://github.com/kuanglab/LowrankTLP