Recent researches indicate that Pre-trained Large Language Models (LLMs) possess cognitive constructs similar to those observed in humans, prompting researchers to investigate the cognitive aspects of LLMs. This paper focuses on explicit and implicit social bias, a distinctive two-level cognitive construct in psychology. It posits that individuals' explicit social bias, which is their conscious expression of bias in the statements, may differ from their implicit social bias, which represents their unconscious bias. We propose a two-stage approach and discover a parallel phenomenon in LLMs known as "re-judge inconsistency" in social bias. In the initial stage, the LLM is tasked with automatically completing statements, potentially incorporating implicit social bias. However, in the subsequent stage, the same LLM re-judges the biased statement generated by itself but contradicts it. We propose that this re-judge inconsistency can be similar to the inconsistency between human's unaware implicit social bias and their aware explicit social bias. Experimental investigations on ChatGPT and GPT-4 concerning common gender biases examined in psychology corroborate the highly stable nature of the re-judge inconsistency. This finding may suggest that diverse cognitive constructs emerge as LLMs' capabilities strengthen. Consequently, leveraging psychological theories can provide enhanced insights into the underlying mechanisms governing the expressions of explicit and implicit constructs in LLMs.
The personalized dialogue explores the consistent relationship between dialogue generation and personality. Existing personalized dialogue agents model persona profiles from three resources: sparse or dense persona descriptions and dialogue histories. However, sparse structured persona attributes are explicit but uninformative, dense persona texts contain rich persona descriptions with much noise, and dialogue history query is both noisy and uninformative for persona modeling. In this work, we combine the advantages of the three resources to obtain a richer and more accurate persona. We design a Contrastive Latent Variable-based model (CLV) that clusters the dense persona descriptions into sparse categories, which are combined with the history query to generate personalized responses. Experimental results on Chinese and English datasets demonstrate our model's superiority in personalization.
Human conversations of recommendation naturally involve the shift of interests which can align the recommendation actions and conversation process to make accurate recommendations with rich explanations. However, existing conversational recommendation systems (CRS) ignore the advantage of user interest shift in connecting recommendation and conversation, which leads to an ineffective loose coupling structure of CRS. To address this issue, by modeling the recommendation actions as recommendation paths in a knowledge graph (KG), we propose DICR (Dual Imitation for Conversational Recommendation), which designs a dual imitation to explicitly align the recommendation paths and user interest shift paths in a recommendation module and a conversation module, respectively. By exchanging alignment signals, DICR achieves bidirectional promotion between recommendation and conversation modules and generates high-quality responses with accurate recommendations and coherent explanations. Experiments demonstrate that DICR outperforms the state-of-the-art models on recommendation and conversation performance with automatic, human, and novel explainability metrics.