In this work, we consider the task of resolving object referents when given a comparative language description. We present a Multi-view Approach to Grounding in Context (MAGiC) that leverages transformers to pragmatically reason over both objects given multiple image views and a language description. In contrast to past efforts that attempt to connect vision and language for this task without fully considering the resulting referential context, MAGiC makes use of the comparative information by jointly reasoning over multiple views of both object referent candidates and the referring language expression. We present an analysis demonstrating that comparative reasoning contributes to SOTA performance on the SNARE object reference task.
Are extralinguistic signals such as image pixels crucial for inducing constituency grammars? While past work has shown substantial gains from multimodal cues, we investigate whether such gains persist in the presence of rich information from large language models (LLMs). We find that our approach, LLM-based C-PCFG (LC-PCFG), outperforms previous multi-modal methods on the task of unsupervised constituency parsing, achieving state-of-the-art performance on a variety of datasets. Moreover, LC-PCFG results in an over 50% reduction in parameter count, and speedups in training time of 1.7x for image-aided models and more than 5x for video-aided models, respectively. These results challenge the notion that extralinguistic signals such as image pixels are needed for unsupervised grammar induction, and point to the need for better text-only baselines in evaluating the need of multi-modality for the task.
Natural language applied to natural 2D images describes a fundamentally 3D world. We present the Voxel-informed Language Grounder (VLG), a language grounding model that leverages 3D geometric information in the form of voxel maps derived from the visual input using a volumetric reconstruction model. We show that VLG significantly improves grounding accuracy on SNARE, an object reference game task. At the time of writing, VLG holds the top place on the SNARE leaderboard, achieving SOTA results with a 2.0% absolute improvement.
We propose a modular architecture for following natural language instructions that describe sequences of diverse subgoals, such as navigating to landmarks or picking up objects. Standard, non-modular, architectures used in instruction following do not exploit subgoal compositionality and often struggle on out-of-distribution tasks and environments. In our approach, subgoal modules each carry out natural language instructions for a specific subgoal type. A sequence of modules to execute is chosen by learning to segment the instructions and predicting a subgoal type for each segment. When compared to standard sequence-to-sequence approaches on ALFRED, a challenging instruction following benchmark, we find that modularization improves generalization to environments unseen in training and to novel tasks.
An agent who interacts with a wide population of other agents needs to be aware that there may be variations in their understanding of the world. Furthermore, the machinery which they use to perceive may be inherently different, as is the case between humans and machines. In this work, we present both an image reference game between a speaker and a population of listeners where reasoning about the concepts other agents can comprehend is necessary and a model formulation with this capability. We focus on reasoning about the conceptual understanding of others, as well as adapting to novel gameplay partners and dealing with differences in perceptual machinery. Our experiments on three benchmark image/attribute datasets suggest that our learner indeed encodes information directly pertaining to the understanding of other agents, and that leveraging this information is crucial for maximizing gameplay performance.