Narrow bit-width data formats are key to reducing the computational and storage costs of modern deep learning applications. This paper evaluates Microscaling (MX) data formats that combine a per-block scaling factor with narrow floating-point and integer types for individual elements. MX formats balance the competing needs of hardware efficiency, model accuracy, and user friction. Empirical results on over two dozen benchmarks demonstrate practicality of MX data formats as a drop-in replacement for baseline FP32 for AI inference and training with low user friction. We also show the first instance of training generative language models at sub-8-bit weights, activations, and gradients with minimal accuracy loss and no modifications to the training recipe.
This paper introduces Block Data Representations (BDR), a framework for exploring and evaluating a wide spectrum of narrow-precision formats for deep learning. It enables comparison of popular quantization standards, and through BDR, new formats based on shared microexponents (MX) are identified, which outperform other state-of-the-art quantization approaches, including narrow-precision floating-point and block floating-point. MX utilizes multiple levels of quantization scaling with ultra-fine scaling factors based on shared microexponents in the hardware. The effectiveness of MX is demonstrated on real-world models including large-scale generative pretraining and inferencing, and production-scale recommendation systems.
In contrast to image/text data whose order can be used to perform non-local feature aggregation in a straightforward way using the pooling layers, graphs lack the tensor representation and mostly the element-wise max/mean function is utilized to aggregate the locally extracted feature vectors. In this paper, we present a novel approach for global feature aggregation in Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) which utilizes a Latent Fixed Data Structure (LFDS) to aggregate the extracted feature vectors. The locally extracted feature vectors are sorted/distributed on the LFDS and a latent neural network (CNN/GNN) is utilized to perform feature aggregation on the LFDS. The proposed approach is used to design several novel global feature aggregation methods based on the choice of the LFDS. We introduce multiple LFDSs including loop, 3D tensor (image), sequence, data driven graphs and an algorithm which sorts/distributes the extracted local feature vectors on the LFDS. While the computational complexity of the proposed methods are linear with the order of input graphs, they achieve competitive or better results.
We study the problem of sampling a bandlimited graph signal in the presence of noise, where the objective is to select a node subset of prescribed cardinality that minimizes the signal reconstruction mean squared error (MSE). To that end, we formulate the task at hand as the minimization of MSE subject to binary constraints, and approximate the resulting NP-hard problem via semidefinite programming (SDP) relaxation. Moreover, we provide an alternative formulation based on maximizing a monotone weak submodular function and propose a randomized-greedy algorithm to find a sub-optimal subset. We then derive a worst-case performance guarantee on the MSE returned by the randomized greedy algorithm for general non-stationary graph signals. The efficacy of the proposed methods is illustrated through numerical simulations on synthetic and real-world graphs. Notably, the randomized greedy algorithm yields an order-of-magnitude speedup over state-of-the-art greedy sampling schemes, while incurring only a marginal MSE performance loss.