We present a natural language processing pipeline that was used to extract polymer solar cell property data from the literature and simulate various active learning strategies. While data-driven methods have been well established to discover novel materials faster than Edisonian trial-and-error approaches, their benefits have not been quantified. Our approach demonstrates a potential reduction in discovery time by approximately 75 %, equivalent to a 15 year acceleration in material innovation. Our pipeline enables us to extract data from more than 3300 papers which is ~5 times larger than similar data sets reported by others. We also trained machine learning models to predict the power conversion efficiency and used our model to identify promising donor-acceptor combinations that are as yet unreported. We thus demonstrate a workflow that goes from published literature to extracted material property data which in turn is used to obtain data-driven insights. Our insights include active learning strategies that can simultaneously optimize the material system and train strong predictive models of material properties. This work provides a valuable framework for research in material science.
Large language models (LLMs) have demonstrated impressive abilities in generating unstructured natural language according to instructions. However, their performance can be inconsistent when tasked with producing text that adheres to specific structured formats, which is crucial in applications like named entity recognition (NER) or relation extraction (RE). To address this issue, this paper introduces an efficient method, G&O, to enhance their structured text generation capabilities. It breaks the generation into a two-step pipeline: initially, LLMs generate answers in natural language as intermediate responses. Subsequently, LLMs are asked to organize the output into the desired structure, using the intermediate responses as context. G&O effectively separates the generation of content from the structuring process, reducing the pressure of completing two orthogonal tasks simultaneously. Tested on zero-shot NER and RE, the results indicate a significant improvement in LLM performance with minimal additional efforts. This straightforward and adaptable prompting technique can also be combined with other strategies, like self-consistency, to further elevate LLM capabilities in various structured text generation tasks.
Scientific information extraction (SciIE), which aims to automatically extract information from scientific literature, is becoming more important than ever. However, there are no existing SciIE datasets for polymer materials, which is an important class of materials used ubiquitously in our daily lives. To bridge this gap, we introduce POLYIE, a new SciIE dataset for polymer materials. POLYIE is curated from 146 full-length polymer scholarly articles, which are annotated with different named entities (i.e., materials, properties, values, conditions) as well as their N-ary relations by domain experts. POLYIE presents several unique challenges due to diverse lexical formats of entities, ambiguity between entities, and variable-length relations. We evaluate state-of-the-art named entity extraction and relation extraction models on POLYIE, analyze their strengths and weaknesses, and highlight some difficult cases for these models. To the best of our knowledge, POLYIE is the first SciIE benchmark for polymer materials, and we hope it will lead to more research efforts from the community on this challenging task. Our code and data are available on: https://github.com/jerry3027/PolyIE.
Polymer simulation with both accuracy and efficiency is a challenging task. Machine learning (ML) forcefields have been developed to achieve both the accuracy of ab initio methods and the efficiency of empirical force fields. However, existing ML force fields are usually limited to single-molecule settings, and their simulations are not robust enough. In this paper, we present PolyGET, a new framework for Polymer Forcefields with Generalizable Equivariant Transformers. PolyGET is designed to capture complex quantum interactions between atoms and generalize across various polymer families, using a deep learning model called Equivariant Transformers. We propose a new training paradigm that focuses exclusively on optimizing forces, which is different from existing methods that jointly optimize forces and energy. This simple force-centric objective function avoids competing objectives between energy and forces, thereby allowing for learning a unified forcefield ML model over different polymer families. We evaluated PolyGET on a large-scale dataset of 24 distinct polymer types and demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in force accuracy and robust MD simulations. Furthermore, PolyGET can simulate large polymers with high fidelity to the reference ab initio DFT method while being able to generalize to unseen polymers.
Recent works have shown the promise of learning pre-trained models for 3D molecular representation. However, existing pre-training models focus predominantly on equilibrium data and largely overlook off-equilibrium conformations. It is challenging to extend these methods to off-equilibrium data because their training objective relies on assumptions of conformations being the local energy minima. We address this gap by proposing a force-centric pretraining model for 3D molecular conformations covering both equilibrium and off-equilibrium data. For off-equilibrium data, our model learns directly from their atomic forces. For equilibrium data, we introduce zero-force regularization and forced-based denoising techniques to approximate near-equilibrium forces. We obtain a unified pre-trained model for 3D molecular representation with over 15 million diverse conformations. Experiments show that, with our pre-training objective, we increase forces accuracy by around 3 times compared to the un-pre-trained Equivariant Transformer model. By incorporating regularizations on equilibrium data, we solved the problem of unstable MD simulations in vanilla Equivariant Transformers, achieving state-of-the-art simulation performance with 2.45 times faster inference time than NequIP. As a powerful molecular encoder, our pre-trained model achieves on-par performance with state-of-the-art property prediction tasks.
Polymers are a vital part of everyday life. Their chemical universe is so large that it presents unprecedented opportunities as well as significant challenges to identify suitable application-specific candidates. We present a complete end-to-end machine-driven polymer informatics pipeline that can search this space for suitable candidates at unprecedented speed and accuracy. This pipeline includes a polymer chemical fingerprinting capability called polyBERT (inspired by Natural Language Processing concepts), and a multitask learning approach that maps the polyBERT fingerprints to a host of properties. polyBERT is a chemical linguist that treats the chemical structure of polymers as a chemical language. The present approach outstrips the best presently available concepts for polymer property prediction based on handcrafted fingerprint schemes in speed by two orders of magnitude while preserving accuracy, thus making it a strong candidate for deployment in scalable architectures including cloud infrastructures.
The ever-increasing number of materials science articles makes it hard to infer chemistry-structure-property relations from published literature. We used natural language processing (NLP) methods to automatically extract material property data from the abstracts of polymer literature. As a component of our pipeline, we trained MaterialsBERT, a language model, using 2.4 million materials science abstracts, which outperforms other baseline models in three out of five named entity recognition datasets when used as the encoder for text. Using this pipeline, we obtained ~300,000 material property records from ~130,000 abstracts in 60 hours. The extracted data was analyzed for a diverse range of applications such as fuel cells, supercapacitors, and polymer solar cells to recover non-trivial insights. The data extracted through our pipeline is made available through a web platform at https://polymerscholar.org which can be used to locate material property data recorded in abstracts conveniently. This work demonstrates the feasibility of an automatic pipeline that starts from published literature and ends with a complete set of extracted material property information.
Non-degradable plastic waste stays for decades on land and in water, jeopardizing our environment; yet our modern lifestyle and current technologies are impossible to sustain without plastics. Bio-synthesized and biodegradable alternatives such as the polymer family of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) have the potential to replace large portions of the world's plastic supply with cradle-to-cradle materials, but their chemical complexity and diversity limit traditional resource-intensive experimentation. In this work, we develop multitask deep neural network property predictors using available experimental data for a diverse set of nearly 23000 homo- and copolymer chemistries. Using the predictors, we identify 14 PHA-based bioplastics from a search space of almost 1.4 million candidates which could serve as potential replacements for seven petroleum-based commodity plastics that account for 75% of the world's yearly plastic production. We discuss possible synthesis routes for these identified promising materials. The developed multitask polymer property predictors are made available as a part of the Polymer Genome project at https://PolymerGenome.org.
Polymer informatics tools have been recently gaining ground to efficiently and effectively develop, design, and discover new polymers that meet specific application needs. So far, however, these data-driven efforts have largely focused on homopolymers. Here, we address the property prediction challenge for copolymers, extending the polymer informatics framework beyond homopolymers. Advanced polymer fingerprinting and deep-learning schemes that incorporate multi-task learning and meta-learning are proposed. A large data set containing over 18,000 data points of glass transition, melting, and degradation temperature of homopolymers and copolymers of up to two monomers is used to demonstrate the copolymer prediction efficacy. The developed models are accurate, fast, flexible, and scalable to more copolymer properties when suitable data become available.
Learning 3D representations that generalize well to arbitrarily oriented inputs is a challenge of practical importance in applications varying from computer vision to physics and chemistry. We propose a novel multi-resolution convolutional architecture for learning over concentric spherical feature maps, of which the single sphere representation is a special case. Our hierarchical architecture is based on alternatively learning to incorporate both intra-sphere and inter-sphere information. We show the applicability of our method for two different types of 3D inputs, mesh objects, which can be regularly sampled, and point clouds, which are irregularly distributed. We also propose an efficient mapping of point clouds to concentric spherical images, thereby bridging spherical convolutions on grids with general point clouds. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in improving state-of-the-art performance on 3D classification tasks with rotated data.
* This paper has been submitted for conference review