Automated machine learning (AutoML) aims to find optimal machine learning solutions automatically given a machine learning problem. It could release the burden of data scientists from the multifarious manual tuning process and enable the access of domain experts to the off-the-shelf machine learning solutions without extensive experience. In this paper, we review the current developments of AutoML in terms of three categories, automated feature engineering (AutoFE), automated model and hyperparameter learning (AutoMHL), and automated deep learning (AutoDL). State-of-the-art techniques adopted in the three categories are presented, including Bayesian optimization, reinforcement learning, evolutionary algorithm, and gradient-based approaches. We summarize popular AutoML frameworks and conclude with current open challenges of AutoML.
We focus on the problem of streaming recommender system and explore novel collaborative filtering algorithms to handle the data dynamicity and complexity in a streaming manner. Although deep neural networks have demonstrated the effectiveness of recommendation tasks, it is lack of explorations on integrating probabilistic models and deep architectures under streaming recommendation settings. Conjoining the complementary advantages of probabilistic models and deep neural networks could enhance both model effectiveness and the understanding of inference uncertainties. To bridge the gap, in this paper, we propose a Coupled Variational Recurrent Collaborative Filtering (CVRCF) framework based on the idea of Deep Bayesian Learning to handle the streaming recommendation problem. The framework jointly combines stochastic processes and deep factorization models under a Bayesian paradigm to model the generation and evolution of users' preferences and items' popularities. To ensure efficient optimization and streaming update, we further propose a sequential variational inference algorithm based on a cross variational recurrent neural network structure. Experimental results on three benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed framework performs favorably against the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both temporal dependency modeling and predictive accuracy. The learned latent variables also provide visualized interpretations for the evolution of temporal dynamics.
Adversarial examples are delicately perturbed inputs, which aim to mislead machine learning models towards incorrect outputs. While most of the existing work focuses on generating adversarial perturbations in multi-class classification problems, many real-world applications fall into the multi-label setting in which one instance could be associated with more than one label. For example, a spammer may generate adversarial spams with malicious advertising while maintaining the other labels such as topic labels unchanged. To analyze the vulnerability and robustness of multi-label learning models, we investigate the generation of multi-label adversarial perturbations. This is a challenging task due to the uncertain number of positive labels associated with one instance, as well as the fact that multiple labels are usually not mutually exclusive with each other. To bridge this gap, in this paper, we propose a general attacking framework targeting on multi-label classification problem and conduct a premier analysis on the perturbations for deep neural networks. Leveraging the ranking relationships among labels, we further design a ranking-based framework to attack multi-label ranking algorithms. We specify the connection between the two proposed frameworks and separately design two specific methods grounded on each of them to generate targeted multi-label perturbations. Experiments on real-world multi-label image classification and ranking problems demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed frameworks and provide insights of the vulnerability of multi-label deep learning models under diverse targeted attacking strategies. Several interesting findings including an unpolished defensive strategy, which could potentially enhance the interpretability and robustness of multi-label deep learning models, are further presented and discussed at the end.
Neural architecture search (NAS) has been proposed to automatically tune deep neural networks, but existing search algorithms usually suffer from expensive computational cost. Network morphism, which keeps the functionality of a neural network while changing its neural architecture, could be helpful for NAS by enabling a more efficient training during the search. In this paper, we propose a novel framework enabling Bayesian optimization to guide the network morphism for efficient neural architecture search by introducing a neural network kernel and a tree-structured acquisition function optimization algorithm, which more efficiently explores the search space. Intensive experiments have been done to demonstrate the superior performance of the developed framework over the state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we build an open-source AutoML system on our method, namely Auto-Keras. The system runs in parallel on CPU and GPU, with an adaptive search strategy for different GPU memory limits.
While deep neural networks (DNN) have become an effective computational tool, the prediction results are often criticized by the lack of interpretability, which is essential in many real-world applications such as health informatics. Existing attempts based on local interpretations aim to identify relevant features contributing the most to the prediction of DNN by monitoring the neighborhood of a given input. They usually simply ignore the intermediate layers of the DNN that might contain rich information for interpretation. To bridge the gap, in this paper, we propose to investigate a guided feature inversion framework for taking advantage of the deep architectures towards effective interpretation. The proposed framework not only determines the contribution of each feature in the input but also provides insights into the decision-making process of DNN models. By further interacting with the neuron of the target category at the output layer of the DNN, we enforce the interpretation result to be class-discriminative. We apply the proposed interpretation model to different CNN architectures to provide explanations for image data and conduct extensive experiments on ImageNet and PASCAL VOC07 datasets. The interpretation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed framework in providing class-discriminative interpretation for DNN-based prediction.
Tensor completion is a problem of filling the missing or unobserved entries of partially observed tensors. Due to the multidimensional character of tensors in describing complex datasets, tensor completion algorithms and their applications have received wide attention and achievement in areas like data mining, computer vision, signal processing, and neuroscience. In this survey, we provide a modern overview of recent advances in tensor completion algorithms from the perspective of big data analytics characterized by diverse variety, large volume, and high velocity. We characterize these advances from four perspectives: general tensor completion algorithms, tensor completion with auxiliary information (variety), scalable tensor completion algorithms (volume), and dynamic tensor completion algorithms (velocity). Further, we identify several tensor completion applications on real-world data-driven problems and present some common experimental frameworks popularized in the literature. Our goal is to summarize these popular methods and introduce them to researchers and practitioners for promoting future research and applications. We conclude with a discussion of key challenges and promising research directions in this community for future exploration.