We present an end-to-end system for the high-fidelity capture, model reconstruction, and real-time rendering of walkable spaces in virtual reality using neural radiance fields. To this end, we designed and built a custom multi-camera rig to densely capture walkable spaces in high fidelity and with multi-view high dynamic range images in unprecedented quality and density. We extend instant neural graphics primitives with a novel perceptual color space for learning accurate HDR appearance, and an efficient mip-mapping mechanism for level-of-detail rendering with anti-aliasing, while carefully optimizing the trade-off between quality and speed. Our multi-GPU renderer enables high-fidelity volume rendering of our neural radiance field model at the full VR resolution of dual 2K$\times$2K at 36 Hz on our custom demo machine. We demonstrate the quality of our results on our challenging high-fidelity datasets, and compare our method and datasets to existing baselines. We release our dataset on our project website.
Neural Radiance Fields (NeRF) have shown impressive novel view synthesis results; nonetheless, even thorough recordings yield imperfections in reconstructions, for instance due to poorly observed areas or minor lighting changes. Our goal is to mitigate these imperfections from various sources with a joint solution: we take advantage of the ability of generative adversarial networks (GANs) to produce realistic images and use them to enhance realism in 3D scene reconstruction with NeRFs. To this end, we learn the patch distribution of a scene using an adversarial discriminator, which provides feedback to the radiance field reconstruction, thus improving realism in a 3D-consistent fashion. Thereby, rendering artifacts are repaired directly in the underlying 3D representation by imposing multi-view path rendering constraints. In addition, we condition a generator with multi-resolution NeRF renderings which is adversarially trained to further improve rendering quality. We demonstrate that our approach significantly improves rendering quality, e.g., nearly halving LPIPS scores compared to Nerfacto while at the same time improving PSNR by 1.4dB on the advanced indoor scenes of Tanks and Temples.
Humans can orient themselves in their 3D environments using simple 2D maps. Differently, algorithms for visual localization mostly rely on complex 3D point clouds that are expensive to build, store, and maintain over time. We bridge this gap by introducing OrienterNet, the first deep neural network that can localize an image with sub-meter accuracy using the same 2D semantic maps that humans use. OrienterNet estimates the location and orientation of a query image by matching a neural Bird's-Eye View with open and globally available maps from OpenStreetMap, enabling anyone to localize anywhere such maps are available. OrienterNet is supervised only by camera poses but learns to perform semantic matching with a wide range of map elements in an end-to-end manner. To enable this, we introduce a large crowd-sourced dataset of images captured across 12 cities from the diverse viewpoints of cars, bikes, and pedestrians. OrienterNet generalizes to new datasets and pushes the state of the art in both robotics and AR scenarios. The code and trained model will be released publicly.
We propose Panoptic Lifting, a novel approach for learning panoptic 3D volumetric representations from images of in-the-wild scenes. Once trained, our model can render color images together with 3D-consistent panoptic segmentation from novel viewpoints. Unlike existing approaches which use 3D input directly or indirectly, our method requires only machine-generated 2D panoptic segmentation masks inferred from a pre-trained network. Our core contribution is a panoptic lifting scheme based on a neural field representation that generates a unified and multi-view consistent, 3D panoptic representation of the scene. To account for inconsistencies of 2D instance identifiers across views, we solve a linear assignment with a cost based on the model's current predictions and the machine-generated segmentation masks, thus enabling us to lift 2D instances to 3D in a consistent way. We further propose and ablate contributions that make our method more robust to noisy, machine-generated labels, including test-time augmentations for confidence estimates, segment consistency loss, bounded segmentation fields, and gradient stopping. Experimental results validate our approach on the challenging Hypersim, Replica, and ScanNet datasets, improving by 8.4, 13.8, and 10.6% in scene-level PQ over state of the art.
We introduce DiffRF, a novel approach for 3D radiance field synthesis based on denoising diffusion probabilistic models. While existing diffusion-based methods operate on images, latent codes, or point cloud data, we are the first to directly generate volumetric radiance fields. To this end, we propose a 3D denoising model which directly operates on an explicit voxel grid representation. However, as radiance fields generated from a set of posed images can be ambiguous and contain artifacts, obtaining ground truth radiance field samples is non-trivial. We address this challenge by pairing the denoising formulation with a rendering loss, enabling our model to learn a deviated prior that favours good image quality instead of trying to replicate fitting errors like floating artifacts. In contrast to 2D-diffusion models, our model learns multi-view consistent priors, enabling free-view synthesis and accurate shape generation. Compared to 3D GANs, our diffusion-based approach naturally enables conditional generation such as masked completion or single-view 3D synthesis at inference time.
We introduce AutoRF - a new approach for learning neural 3D object representations where each object in the training set is observed by only a single view. This setting is in stark contrast to the majority of existing works that leverage multiple views of the same object, employ explicit priors during training, or require pixel-perfect annotations. To address this challenging setting, we propose to learn a normalized, object-centric representation whose embedding describes and disentangles shape, appearance, and pose. Each encoding provides well-generalizable, compact information about the object of interest, which is decoded in a single-shot into a new target view, thus enabling novel view synthesis. We further improve the reconstruction quality by optimizing shape and appearance codes at test time by fitting the representation tightly to the input image. In a series of experiments, we show that our method generalizes well to unseen objects, even across different datasets of challenging real-world street scenes such as nuScenes, KITTI, and Mapillary Metropolis.
Aggregating information from features across different layers is an essential operation for dense prediction models. Despite its limited expressiveness, feature concatenation dominates the choice of aggregation operations. In this paper, we introduce Attentive Feature Aggregation (AFA) to fuse different network layers with more expressive non-linear operations. AFA exploits both spatial and channel attention to compute weighted average of the layer activations. Inspired by neural volume rendering, we extend AFA with Scale-Space Rendering (SSR) to perform late fusion of multi-scale predictions. AFA is applicable to a wide range of existing network designs. Our experiments show consistent and significant improvements on challenging semantic segmentation benchmarks, including Cityscapes, BDD100K, and Mapillary Vistas, at negligible computational and parameter overhead. In particular, AFA improves the performance of the Deep Layer Aggregation (DLA) model by nearly 6% mIoU on Cityscapes. Our experimental analyses show that AFA learns to progressively refine segmentation maps and to improve boundary details, leading to new state-of-the-art results on boundary detection benchmarks on BSDS500 and NYUDv2. Code and video resources are available at http://vis.xyz/pub/dla-afa.
We introduce the problem of weakly supervised Multi-Object Tracking and Segmentation, i.e. joint weakly supervised instance segmentation and multi-object tracking, in which we do not provide any kind of mask annotation. To address it, we design a novel synergistic training strategy by taking advantage of multi-task learning, i.e. classification and tracking tasks guide the training of the unsupervised instance segmentation. For that purpose, we extract weak foreground localization information, provided by Grad-CAM heatmaps, to generate a partial ground truth to learn from. Additionally, RGB image level information is employed to refine the mask prediction at the edges of the objects. We evaluate our method on KITTI MOTS, the most representative benchmark for this task, reducing the performance gap on the MOTSP metric between the fully supervised and weakly supervised approach to just 12% and 12.7% for cars and pedestrians, respectively.
Crop-based training strategies decouple training resolution from GPU memory consumption, allowing the use of large-capacity panoptic segmentation networks on multi-megapixel images. Using crops, however, can introduce a bias towards truncating or missing large objects. To address this, we propose a novel crop-aware bounding box regression loss (CABB loss), which promotes predictions to be consistent with the visible parts of the cropped objects, while not over-penalizing them for extending outside of the crop. We further introduce a novel data sampling and augmentation strategy which improves generalization across scales by counteracting the imbalanced distribution of object sizes. Combining these two contributions with a carefully designed, top-down panoptic segmentation architecture, we obtain new state-of-the-art results on the challenging Mapillary Vistas (MVD), Indian Driving and Cityscapes datasets, surpassing the previously best approach on MVD by +4.5% PQ and +5.2% mAP.
Pseudo-LiDAR-based methods for monocular 3D object detection have generated large attention in the community due to performance gains showed on the KITTI3D benchmark dataset, in particular on the commonly reported validation split. This generated a distorted impression about the superiority of Pseudo-LiDAR approaches against methods working with RGB-images only. Our first contribution consists in rectifying this view by analysing and showing experimentally that the validation results published by Pseudo-LiDAR-based methods are substantially biased. The source of the bias resides in an overlap between the KITTI3D object detection validation set and the training/validation sets used to train depth predictors feeding Pseudo-LiDAR-based methods. Surprisingly, the bias remains also after geographically removing the overlap, revealing the presence of a more structured contamination. This leaves the test set as the only reliable mean of comparison, where published Pseudo-LiDAR-based methods do not excel. Our second contribution brings Pseudo-LiDAR-based methods back up in the ranking with the introduction of a 3D confidence prediction module. Thanks to the proposed architectural changes, our modified Pseudo-LiDAR-based methods exhibit extraordinary gains on the test scores (up to +8% 3D AP).