Several self-supervised representation learning methods have been proposed for reinforcement learning (RL) with rich observations. For real-world applications of RL, recovering underlying latent states is crucial, particularly when sensory inputs contain irrelevant and exogenous information. In this work, we study how information bottlenecks can be used to construct latent states efficiently in the presence of task-irrelevant information. We propose architectures that utilize variational and discrete information bottlenecks, coined as RepDIB, to learn structured factorized representations. Exploiting the expressiveness bought by factorized representations, we introduce a simple, yet effective, bottleneck that can be integrated with any existing self-supervised objective for RL. We demonstrate this across several online and offline RL benchmarks, along with a real robot arm task, where we find that compressed representations with RepDIB can lead to strong performance improvements, as the learned bottlenecks help predict only the relevant state while ignoring irrelevant information.
Subword tokenization is a commonly used input pre-processing step in most recent NLP models. However, it limits the models' ability to leverage end-to-end task learning. Its frequency-based vocabulary creation compromises tokenization in low-resource languages, leading models to produce suboptimal representations. Additionally, the dependency on a fixed vocabulary limits the subword models' adaptability across languages and domains. In this work, we propose a vocabulary-free neural tokenizer by distilling segmentation information from heuristic-based subword tokenization. We pre-train our character-based tokenizer by processing unique words from multilingual corpus, thereby extensively increasing word diversity across languages. Unlike the predefined and fixed vocabularies in subword methods, our tokenizer allows end-to-end task learning, resulting in optimal task-specific tokenization. The experimental results show that replacing the subword tokenizer with our neural tokenizer consistently improves performance on multilingual (NLI) and code-switching (sentiment analysis) tasks, with larger gains in low-resource languages. Additionally, our neural tokenizer exhibits a robust performance on downstream tasks when adversarial noise is present (typos and misspelling), further increasing the initial improvements over statistical subword tokenizers.
To fluently collaborate with people, robots need the ability to recognize human activities accurately. Although modern robots are equipped with various sensors, robust human activity recognition (HAR) still remains a challenging task for robots due to difficulties related to multimodal data fusion. To address these challenges, in this work, we introduce a deep neural network-based multimodal HAR algorithm, HAMLET. HAMLET incorporates a hierarchical architecture, where the lower layer encodes spatio-temporal features from unimodal data by adopting a multi-head self-attention mechanism. We develop a novel multimodal attention mechanism for disentangling and fusing the salient unimodal features to compute the multimodal features in the upper layer. Finally, multimodal features are used in a fully connect neural-network to recognize human activities. We evaluated our algorithm by comparing its performance to several state-of-the-art activity recognition algorithms on three human activity datasets. The results suggest that HAMLET outperformed all other evaluated baselines across all datasets and metrics tested, with the highest top-1 accuracy of 95.12% and 97.45% on the UTD-MHAD  and the UT-Kinect  datasets respectively, and F1-score of 81.52% on the UCSD-MIT  dataset. We further visualize the unimodal and multimodal attention maps, which provide us with a tool to interpret the impact of attention mechanisms concerning HAR.
Deep Learning algorithms are often used as black box type learning and they are too complex to understand. The widespread usability of Deep Learning algorithms to solve various machine learning problems demands deep and transparent understanding of the internal representation as well as decision making. Moreover, the learning models, trained on sequential data, such as audio and video data, have intricate internal reasoning process due to their complex distribution of features. Thus, a visual simulator might be helpful to trace the internal decision making mechanisms in response to adversarial input data, and it would help to debug and design appropriate deep learning models. However, interpreting the internal reasoning of deep learning model is not well studied in the literature. In this work, we have developed a visual interactive web application, namely d-DeVIS, which helps to visualize the internal reasoning of the learning model which is trained on the audio data. The proposed system allows to perceive the behavior as well as to debug the model by interactively generating adversarial audio data point. The web application of d-DeVIS is available at ddevis.herokuapp.com.