In the upcoming decade, deep learning may revolutionize the natural sciences, enhancing our capacity to model and predict natural occurrences. This could herald a new era of scientific exploration, bringing significant advancements across sectors from drug development to renewable energy. To answer this call, we present DeepSpeed4Science initiative (deepspeed4science.ai) which aims to build unique capabilities through AI system technology innovations to help domain experts to unlock today's biggest science mysteries. By leveraging DeepSpeed's current technology pillars (training, inference and compression) as base technology enablers, DeepSpeed4Science will create a new set of AI system technologies tailored for accelerating scientific discoveries by addressing their unique complexity beyond the common technical approaches used for accelerating generic large language models (LLMs). In this paper, we showcase the early progress we made with DeepSpeed4Science in addressing two of the critical system challenges in structural biology research.
We propose a novel deep learning (DL) approach to solve one-dimensional non-linear elliptic, parabolic, and hyperbolic problems on graphs. A system of physics-informed neural network (PINN) models is used to solve the differential equations, by assigning each PINN model to a specific edge of the graph. Kirkhoff-Neumann (KN) nodal conditions are imposed in a weak form by adding a penalization term to the training loss function. Through the penalization term that imposes the KN conditions, PINN models associated with edges that share a node coordinate with each other to ensure continuity of the solution and of its directional derivatives computed along the respective edges. Using individual PINN models for each edge of the graph allows our approach to fulfill necessary requirements for parallelization by enabling different PINN models to be trained on distributed compute resources. Numerical results show that the system of PINN models accurately approximate the solutions of the differential problems across the entire graph for a broad set of graph topologies.
The detection and localization of possible diseases in crops are usually automated by resorting to supervised deep learning approaches. In this work, we tackle these goals with unsupervised models, by applying three different types of autoencoders to a specific open-source dataset of healthy and unhealthy pepper and cherry leaf images. CAE, CVAE and VQ-VAE autoencoders are deployed to screen unlabeled images of such a dataset, and compared in terms of image reconstruction, anomaly removal, detection and localization. The vector-quantized variational architecture turns out to be the best performing one with respect to all these targets.
We propose a stable, parallel approach to train Wasserstein Conditional Generative Adversarial Neural Networks (W-CGANs) under the constraint of a fixed computational budget. Differently from previous distributed GANs training techniques, our approach avoids inter-process communications, reduces the risk of mode collapse and enhances scalability by using multiple generators, each one of them concurrently trained on a single data label. The use of the Wasserstein metric also reduces the risk of cycling by stabilizing the training of each generator. We illustrate the approach on the CIFAR10, CIFAR100, and ImageNet1k datasets, three standard benchmark image datasets, maintaining the original resolution of the images for each dataset. Performance is assessed in terms of scalability and final accuracy within a limited fixed computational time and computational resources. To measure accuracy, we use the inception score, the Frechet inception distance, and image quality. An improvement in inception score and Frechet inception distance is shown in comparison to previous results obtained by performing the parallel approach on deep convolutional conditional generative adversarial neural networks (DC-CGANs) as well as an improvement of image quality of the new images created by the GANs approach. Weak scaling is attained on both datasets using up to 2,000 NVIDIA V100 GPUs on the OLCF supercomputer Summit.
Graph Convolutional Neural Network (GCNN) is a popular class of deep learning (DL) models in material science to predict material properties from the graph representation of molecular structures. Training an accurate and comprehensive GCNN surrogate for molecular design requires large-scale graph datasets and is usually a time-consuming process. Recent advances in GPUs and distributed computing open a path to reduce the computational cost for GCNN training effectively. However, efficient utilization of high performance computing (HPC) resources for training requires simultaneously optimizing large-scale data management and scalable stochastic batched optimization techniques. In this work, we focus on building GCNN models on HPC systems to predict material properties of millions of molecules. We use HydraGNN, our in-house library for large-scale GCNN training, leveraging distributed data parallelism in PyTorch. We use ADIOS, a high-performance data management framework for efficient storage and reading of large molecular graph data. We perform parallel training on two open-source large-scale graph datasets to build a GCNN predictor for an important quantum property known as the HOMO-LUMO gap. We measure the scalability, accuracy, and convergence of our approach on two DOE supercomputers: the Summit supercomputer at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and the Perlmutter system at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC). We present our experimental results with HydraGNN showing i) reduction of data loading time up to 4.2 times compared with a conventional method and ii) linear scaling performance for training up to 1,024 GPUs on both Summit and Perlmutter.
We propose a new approach to generate a reliable reduced model for a parametric elliptic problem, in the presence of noisy data. The reference model reduction procedure is the directional HiPOD method, which combines Hierarchical Model reduction with a standard Proper Orthogonal Decomposition, according to an offline/online paradigm. In this paper we show that directional HiPOD looses in terms of accuracy when problem data are affected by noise. This is due to the interpolation driving the online phase, since it replicates, by definition, the noise trend. To overcome this limit, we replace interpolation with Machine Learning fitting models which better discriminate relevant physical features in the data from irrelevant unstructured noise. The numerical assessment, although preliminary, confirms the potentialities of the new approach.
We introduce a multi-tasking graph convolutional neural network, HydraGNN, to simultaneously predict both global and atomic physical properties and demonstrate with ferromagnetic materials. We train HydraGNN on an open-source ab initio density functional theory (DFT) dataset for iron-platinum (FePt) with a fixed body centered tetragonal (BCT) lattice structure and fixed volume to simultaneously predict the mixing enthalpy (a global feature of the system), the atomic charge transfer, and the atomic magnetic moment across configurations that span the entire compositional range. By taking advantage of underlying physical correlations between material properties, multi-task learning (MTL) with HydraGNN provides effective training even with modest amounts of data. Moreover, this is achieved with just one architecture instead of three, as required by single-task learning (STL). The first convolutional layers of the HydraGNN architecture are shared by all learning tasks and extract features common to all material properties. The following layers discriminate the features of the different properties, the results of which are fed to the separate heads of the final layer to produce predictions. Numerical results show that HydraGNN effectively captures the relation between the configurational entropy and the material properties over the entire compositional range. Overall, the accuracy of simultaneous MTL predictions is comparable to the accuracy of the STL predictions. In addition, the computational cost of training HydraGNN for MTL is much lower than the original DFT calculations and also lower than training separate STL models for each property.
Anderson acceleration (AA) is an extrapolation technique designed to speed-up fixed-point iterations like those arising from the iterative training of DL models. Training DL models requires large datasets processed in randomly sampled batches that tend to introduce in the fixed-point iteration stochastic oscillations of amplitude roughly inversely proportional to the size of the batch. These oscillations reduce and occasionally eliminate the positive effect of AA. To restore AA's advantage, we combine it with an adaptive moving average procedure that smoothes the oscillations and results in a more regular sequence of gradient descent updates. By monitoring the relative standard deviation between consecutive iterations, we also introduce a criterion to automatically assess whether the moving average is needed. We applied the method to the following DL instantiations: (i) multi-layer perceptrons (MLPs) trained on the open-source graduate admissions dataset for regression, (ii) physics informed neural networks (PINNs) trained on source data to solve 2d and 100d Burgers' partial differential equations (PDEs), and (iii) ResNet50 trained on the open-source ImageNet1k dataset for image classification. Numerical results obtained using up to 1,536 NVIDIA V100 GPUs on the OLCF supercomputer Summit showed the stabilizing effect of the moving average on AA for all the problems above.
We propose a distributed approach to train deep convolutional generative adversarial neural network (DC-CGANs) models. Our method reduces the imbalance between generator and discriminator by partitioning the training data according to data labels, and enhances scalability by performing a parallel training where multiple generators are concurrently trained, each one of them focusing on a single data label. Performance is assessed in terms of inception score and image quality on MNIST, CIFAR10, CIFAR100, and ImageNet1k datasets, showing a significant improvement in comparison to state-of-the-art techniques to training DC-CGANs. Weak scaling is attained on all the four datasets using up to 1,000 processes and 2,000 NVIDIA V100 GPUs on the OLCF supercomputer Summit.
In this work we propose a new method to optimize the architecture of an artificial neural network. The algorithm proposed, called Greedy Search for Neural Network Architecture, aims to minimize the complexity of the architecture search and the complexity of the final model selected without compromising the predictive performance. The reduction of the computational cost makes this approach appealing for two reasons. Firstly, there is a need from domain scientists to easily interpret predictions returned by a deep learning model and this tends to be cumbersome when neural networks have complex structures. Secondly, the use of neural networks is challenging in situations with compute/memory limitations. Promising numerical results show that our method is competitive against other hyperparameter optimization algorithms for attainable performance and computational cost. We also generalize the definition of adjusted score from linear regression models to neural networks. Numerical experiments are presented to show that the adjusted score can boost the greedy search to favor smaller architectures over larger ones without compromising the predictive performance.