Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Authors:Yiran Mao, Madeline G. Reinecke, Markus Kunesch, Edgar A. Duéñez-Guzmán, Ramona Comanescu, Julia Haas, Joel Z. Leibo

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Is it possible to evaluate the moral cognition of complex artificial agents? In this work, we take a look at one aspect of morality: `doing the right thing for the right reasons.' We propose a behavior-based analysis of artificial moral cognition which could also be applied to humans to facilitate like-for-like comparison. Morally-motivated behavior should persist despite mounting cost; by measuring an agent's sensitivity to this cost, we gain deeper insight into underlying motivations. We apply this evaluation to a particular set of deep reinforcement learning agents, trained by memory-based meta-reinforcement learning. Our results indicate that agents trained with a reward function that includes other-regarding preferences perform helping behavior in a way that is less sensitive to increasing cost than agents trained with more self-interested preferences.

Via

Authors:Jordi Grau-Moya, Grégoire Delétang, Markus Kunesch, Tim Genewein, Elliot Catt, Kevin Li, Anian Ruoss, Chris Cundy, Joel Veness, Jane Wang(+4 more)

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Meta-training agents with memory has been shown to culminate in Bayes-optimal agents, which casts Bayes-optimality as the implicit solution to a numerical optimization problem rather than an explicit modeling assumption. Bayes-optimal agents are risk-neutral, since they solely attune to the expected return, and ambiguity-neutral, since they act in new situations as if the uncertainty were known. This is in contrast to risk-sensitive agents, which additionally exploit the higher-order moments of the return, and ambiguity-sensitive agents, which act differently when recognizing situations in which they lack knowledge. Humans are also known to be averse to ambiguity and sensitive to risk in ways that aren't Bayes-optimal, indicating that such sensitivity can confer advantages, especially in safety-critical situations. How can we extend the meta-learning protocol to generate risk- and ambiguity-sensitive agents? The goal of this work is to fill this gap in the literature by showing that risk- and ambiguity-sensitivity also emerge as the result of an optimization problem using modified meta-training algorithms, which manipulate the experience-generation process of the learner. We empirically test our proposed meta-training algorithms on agents exposed to foundational classes of decision-making experiments and demonstrate that they become sensitive to risk and ambiguity.

Via

Authors:Rob Brekelmans, Tim Genewein, Jordi Grau-Moya, Grégoire Delétang, Markus Kunesch, Shane Legg, Pedro Ortega

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Policy regularization methods such as maximum entropy regularization are widely used in reinforcement learning to improve the robustness of a learned policy. In this paper, we show how this robustness arises from hedging against worst-case perturbations of the reward function, which are chosen from a limited set by an imagined adversary. Using convex duality, we characterize this robust set of adversarial reward perturbations under KL and alpha-divergence regularization, which includes Shannon and Tsallis entropy regularization as special cases. Importantly, generalization guarantees can be given within this robust set. We provide detailed discussion of the worst-case reward perturbations, and present intuitive empirical examples to illustrate this robustness and its relationship with generalization. Finally, we discuss how our analysis complements and extends previous results on adversarial reward robustness and path consistency optimality conditions.

Via

Authors:Grégoire Delétang, Jordi Grau-Moya, Markus Kunesch, Tim Genewein, Rob Brekelmans, Shane Legg, Pedro A. Ortega

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:We extend temporal-difference (TD) learning in order to obtain risk-sensitive, model-free reinforcement learning algorithms. This extension can be regarded as modification of the Rescorla-Wagner rule, where the (sigmoidal) stimulus is taken to be either the event of over- or underestimating the TD target. As a result, one obtains a stochastic approximation rule for estimating the free energy from i.i.d. samples generated by a Gaussian distribution with unknown mean and variance. Since the Gaussian free energy is known to be a certainty-equivalent sensitive to the mean and the variance, the learning rule has applications in risk-sensitive decision-making.

Via

Authors:Pedro A. Ortega, Markus Kunesch, Grégoire Delétang, Tim Genewein, Jordi Grau-Moya, Joel Veness, Jonas Buchli, Jonas Degrave, Bilal Piot, Julien Perolat(+9 more)

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:The recent phenomenal success of language models has reinvigorated machine learning research, and large sequence models such as transformers are being applied to a variety of domains. One important problem class that has remained relatively elusive however is purposeful adaptive behavior. Currently there is a common perception that sequence models "lack the understanding of the cause and effect of their actions" leading them to draw incorrect inferences due to auto-suggestive delusions. In this report we explain where this mismatch originates, and show that it can be resolved by treating actions as causal interventions. Finally, we show that in supervised learning, one can teach a system to condition or intervene on data by training with factual and counterfactual error signals respectively.

Via

Authors:Grégoire Déletang, Jordi Grau-Moya, Miljan Martic, Tim Genewein, Tom McGrath, Vladimir Mikulik, Markus Kunesch, Shane Legg, Pedro A. Ortega

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:As machine learning systems become more powerful they also become increasingly unpredictable and opaque. Yet, finding human-understandable explanations of how they work is essential for their safe deployment. This technical report illustrates a methodology for investigating the causal mechanisms that drive the behaviour of artificial agents. Six use cases are covered, each addressing a typical question an analyst might ask about an agent. In particular, we show that each question cannot be addressed by pure observation alone, but instead requires conducting experiments with systematically chosen manipulations so as to generate the correct causal evidence.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:The importance of explainability in machine learning continues to grow, as both neural-network architectures and the data they model become increasingly complex. Unique challenges arise when a model's input features become high dimensional: on one hand, principled model-agnostic approaches to explainability become too computationally expensive; on the other, more efficient explainability algorithms lack natural interpretations for general users. In this work, we introduce a framework for human-interpretable explainability on high-dimensional data, consisting of two modules. First, we apply a semantically meaningful latent representation, both to reduce the raw dimensionality of the data, and to ensure its human interpretability. These latent features can be learnt, e.g. explicitly as disentangled representations or implicitly through image-to-image translation, or they can be based on any computable quantities the user chooses. Second, we adapt the Shapley paradigm for model-agnostic explainability to operate on these latent features. This leads to interpretable model explanations that are both theoretically controlled and computationally tractable. We benchmark our approach on synthetic data and demonstrate its effectiveness on several image-classification tasks.

Via