As the interest in autonomous systems continues to grow, one of the major challenges is collecting sufficient and representative real-world data. Despite the strong practical and commercial interest in autonomous landing systems in the aerospace field, there is a lack of open-source datasets of aerial images. To address this issue, we present a dataset-lard-of high-quality aerial images for the task of runway detection during approach and landing phases. Most of the dataset is composed of synthetic images but we also provide manually labelled images from real landing footages, to extend the detection task to a more realistic setting. In addition, we offer the generator which can produce such synthetic front-view images and enables automatic annotation of the runway corners through geometric transformations. This dataset paves the way for further research such as the analysis of dataset quality or the development of models to cope with the detection tasks. Find data, code and more up-to-date information at https://github.com/deel-ai/LARD
We describe a complete method that learns a neural network which is guaranteed to overestimate a reference function on a given domain. The neural network can then be used as a surrogate for the reference function. The method involves two steps. In the first step, we construct an adaptive set of Majoring Points. In the second step, we optimize a well-chosen neural network to overestimate the Majoring Points. In order to extend the guarantee on the Majoring Points to the whole domain, we necessarily have to make an assumption on the reference function. In this study, we assume that the reference function is monotonic. We provide experiments on synthetic and real problems. The experiments show that the density of the Majoring Points concentrate where the reference function varies. The learned over-estimations are both guaranteed to overestimate the reference function and are proven empirically to provide good approximations of it. Experiments on real data show that the method makes it possible to use the surrogate function in embedded systems for which an underestimation is critical; when computing the reference function requires too many resources.
The ability to detect anomalies in time series is considered as highly valuable within plenty of application domains. The sequential nature of time series objects is responsible for an additional feature complexity, ultimately requiring specialized approaches for solving the task. Essential characteristics of time series, laying outside the time domain, are often difficult to capture with state-of-the-art anomaly detection methods, when no transformations on the time series have been applied. Inspired by the success of deep learning methods in computer vision, several studies have proposed to transform time-series into image-like representations, leading to very promising results. However, most of the previous studies implementing time-series to image encodings have focused on the supervised classification. The application to unsupervised anomaly detection tasks has been limited. The paper has the following contributions: First, we evaluate the application of six time-series to image encodings to DL algorithms: Gramian Angular Field, Markov Transition Field, Recurrence Plot, Grey Scale Encoding, Spectrogram and Scalogram. Second, we propose modifications of the original encoding definitions, to make them more robust to the variability in large datasets. And third, we provide a comprehensive comparison between using the raw time series directly and the different encodings, with and without the proposed improvements. The comparison is performed on a dataset collected and released by Airbus, containing highly complex vibration measurements from real helicopters flight tests. The different encodings provide competitive results for anomaly detection.
The Wasserstein distance received a lot of attention recently in the community of machine learning, especially for its principled way of comparing distributions. It has found numerous applications in several hard problems, such as domain adaptation, dimensionality reduction or generative models. However, its use is still limited by a heavy computational cost. Our goal is to alleviate this problem by providing an approximation mechanism that allows to break its inherent complexity. It relies on the search of an embedding where the Euclidean distance mimics the Wasserstein distance. We show that such an embedding can be found with a siamese architecture associated with a decoder network that allows to move from the embedding space back to the original input space. Once this embedding has been found, computing optimization problems in the Wasserstein space (e.g. barycenters, principal directions or even archetypes) can be conducted extremely fast. Numerical experiments supporting this idea are conducted on image datasets, and show the wide potential benefits of our method.
Theano is a Python library that allows to define, optimize, and evaluate mathematical expressions involving multi-dimensional arrays efficiently. Since its introduction, it has been one of the most used CPU and GPU mathematical compilers - especially in the machine learning community - and has shown steady performance improvements. Theano is being actively and continuously developed since 2008, multiple frameworks have been built on top of it and it has been used to produce many state-of-the-art machine learning models. The present article is structured as follows. Section I provides an overview of the Theano software and its community. Section II presents the principal features of Theano and how to use them, and compares them with other similar projects. Section III focuses on recently-introduced functionalities and improvements. Section IV compares the performance of Theano against Torch7 and TensorFlow on several machine learning models. Section V discusses current limitations of Theano and potential ways of improving it.