Tracing the source of research papers is a fundamental yet challenging task for researchers. The billion-scale citation relations between papers hinder researchers from understanding the evolution of science efficiently. To date, there is still a lack of an accurate and scalable dataset constructed by professional researchers to identify the direct source of their studied papers, based on which automatic algorithms can be developed to expand the evolutionary knowledge of science. In this paper, we study the problem of paper source tracing (PST) and construct a high-quality and ever-increasing dataset PST-Bench in computer science. Based on PST-Bench, we reveal several intriguing discoveries, such as the differing evolution patterns across various topics. An exploration of various methods underscores the hardness of PST-Bench, pinpointing potential directions on this topic. The dataset and codes have been available at https://github.com/THUDM/paper-source-trace.
With the rapid proliferation of scientific literature, versatile academic knowledge services increasingly rely on comprehensive academic graph mining. Despite the availability of public academic graphs, benchmarks, and datasets, these resources often fall short in multi-aspect and fine-grained annotations, are constrained to specific task types and domains, or lack underlying real academic graphs. In this paper, we present OAG-Bench, a comprehensive, multi-aspect, and fine-grained human-curated benchmark based on the Open Academic Graph (OAG). OAG-Bench covers 10 tasks, 20 datasets, 70+ baselines, and 120+ experimental results to date. We propose new data annotation strategies for certain tasks and offer a suite of data pre-processing codes, algorithm implementations, and standardized evaluation protocols to facilitate academic graph mining. Extensive experiments reveal that even advanced algorithms like large language models (LLMs) encounter difficulties in addressing key challenges in certain tasks, such as paper source tracing and scholar profiling. We also introduce the Open Academic Graph Challenge (OAG-Challenge) to encourage community input and sharing. We envisage that OAG-Bench can serve as a common ground for the community to evaluate and compare algorithms in academic graph mining, thereby accelerating algorithm development and advancement in this field. OAG-Bench is accessible at https://www.aminer.cn/data/.
Pseudorange errors are the root cause of localization inaccuracy in GPS. Previous data-driven methods regress and eliminate pseudorange errors using handcrafted intermediate labels. Unlike them, we propose an end-to-end GPS localization framework, E2E-PrNet, to train a neural network for pseudorange correction (PrNet) directly using the final task loss calculated with the ground truth of GPS receiver states. The gradients of the loss with respect to learnable parameters are backpropagated through a differentiable nonlinear least squares optimizer to PrNet. The feasibility is verified with GPS data collected by Android phones, showing that E2E-PrNet outperforms the state-of-the-art end-to-end GPS localization methods.
PyPose is an open-source library for robot learning. It combines a learning-based approach with physics-based optimization, which enables seamless end-to-end robot learning. It has been used in many tasks due to its meticulously designed application programming interface (API) and efficient implementation. From its initial launch in early 2022, PyPose has experienced significant enhancements, incorporating a wide variety of new features into its platform. To satisfy the growing demand for understanding and utilizing the library and reduce the learning curve of new users, we present the fundamental design principle of the imperative programming interface, and showcase the flexible usage of diverse functionalities and modules using an extremely simple Dubins car example. We also demonstrate that the PyPose can be easily used to navigate a real quadruped robot with a few lines of code.
Path planning for multiple tethered robots is a challenging problem due to the complex interactions among the cables and the possibility of severe entanglements. Previous works on this problem either consider idealistic cable models or provide no guarantee for entanglement-free paths. In this work, we present a new approach to address this problem using the theory of braids. By establishing a topological equivalence between the physical cables and the space-time trajectories of the robots, and identifying particular braid patterns that emerge from the entangled trajectories, we obtain the key finding that all complex entanglements stem from a finite number of interaction patterns between 2 or 3 robots. Hence, non-entanglement can be guaranteed by avoiding these interaction patterns in the trajectories of the robots. Based on this finding, we present a graph search algorithm using the permutation grid to efficiently search for a feasible topology of paths and reject braid patterns that result in an entanglement. We demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can achieve 100% goal-reaching capability without entanglement for up to 10 drones with a slack cable model in a high-fidelity simulation platform. The practicality of the proposed approach is verified using three small tethered UAVs in indoor flight experiments.
* Accepted for presentation in Robotics: Science and Systems 2023
We present the dynamic model and control of DoubleBee, a novel hybrid aerial-ground vehicle consisting of two propellers mounted on tilting servo motors and two motor-driven wheels. DoubleBee exploits the high energy efficiency of a bicopter configuration in aerial mode, and enjoys the low power consumption of a two-wheel self-balancing robot on the ground. Furthermore, the propeller thrusts act as additional control inputs on the ground, enabling a novel decoupled control scheme where the attitude of the robot is controlled using thrusts and the translational motion is realized using wheels. A prototype of DoubleBee is constructed using commercially available components. The power efficiency and the control performance of the robot are verified through comprehensive experiments. Challenging tasks in indoor and outdoor environments demonstrate the capability of DoubleBee to traverse unstructured environments, fly over and move under barriers, and climb steep and rough terrains.
Despite recent progress on trajectory planning of multiple robots and path planning of a single tethered robot, planning of multiple tethered robots to reach their individual targets without entanglements remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we present a complete approach to address this problem. Firstly, we propose a multi-robot tether-aware representation of homotopy, using which we can efficiently evaluate the feasibility and safety of a potential path in terms of (1) the cable length required to reach a target following the path, and (2) the risk of entanglements with the cables of other robots. Then, the proposed representation is applied in a decentralized and online planning framework that includes a graph-based kinodynamic trajectory finder and an optimization-based trajectory refinement, to generate entanglement-free, collision-free and dynamically feasible trajectories. The efficiency of the proposed homotopy representation is compared against existing single and multiple tethered robot planning approaches. Simulations with up to 8 UAVs show the effectiveness of the approach in entanglement prevention and its real-time capabilities. Flight experiments using 3 tethered UAVs verify the practicality of the presented approach.
This paper introduces a differential dynamic programming (DDP) based framework for polynomial trajectory generation for differentially flat systems. In particular, instead of using a linear equation with increasing size to represent multiple polynomial segments as in literature, we take a new perspective from state-space representation such that the linear equation reduces to a finite horizon control system with a fixed state dimension and the required continuity conditions for consecutive polynomials are automatically satisfied. Consequently, the constrained trajectory generation problem (both with and without time optimization) can be converted to a discrete-time finite-horizon optimal control problem with inequality constraints, which can be approached by a recently developed interior-point DDP (IPDDP) algorithm. Furthermore, for unconstrained trajectory generation with preallocated time, we show that this problem is indeed a linear-quadratic tracking (LQT) problem (DDP algorithm with exact one iteration). All these algorithms enjoy linear complexity with respect to the number of segments. Both numerical comparisons with state-of-the-art methods and physical experiments are presented to verify and validate the effectiveness of our theoretical findings. The implementation code will be open-sourced,
While many works on Continual Learning have shown promising results for mitigating catastrophic forgetting, they have relied on supervised training. To successfully learn in a label-agnostic incremental setting, a model must distinguish between learned and novel classes to properly include samples for training. We introduce a novelty detection method that leverages network confusion caused by training incoming data as a new class. We found that incorporating a class-imbalance during this detection method substantially enhances performance. The effectiveness of our approach is demonstrated across a set of image classification benchmarks: MNIST, SVHN, CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and CRIB.