Achieving the generalization of an invariant classifier from source domains to shifted target domains while simultaneously considering model fairness is a substantial and complex challenge in machine learning. Existing domain generalization research typically attributes domain shifts to concept shift, which relates to alterations in class labels, and covariate shift, which pertains to variations in data styles. In this paper, by introducing another form of distribution shift, known as dependence shift, which involves variations in fair dependence patterns across domains, we propose a novel domain generalization approach that addresses domain shifts by considering both covariate and dependence shifts. We assert the existence of an underlying transformation model can transform data from one domain to another. By generating data in synthetic domains through the model, a fairness-aware invariant classifier is learned that enforces both model accuracy and fairness in unseen domains. Extensive empirical studies on four benchmark datasets demonstrate that our approach surpasses state-of-the-art methods.
Two prevalent types of distributional shifts in machine learning are the covariate shift (as observed across different domains) and the semantic shift (as seen across different classes). Traditional OOD detection techniques typically address only one of these shifts. However, real-world testing environments often present a combination of both covariate and semantic shifts. In this study, we introduce a novel problem, semantic OOD detection across domains, which simultaneously addresses both distributional shifts. To this end, we introduce two regularization strategies: domain generalization regularization, which ensures semantic invariance across domains to counteract the covariate shift, and OOD detection regularization, designed to enhance OOD detection capabilities against the semantic shift through energy bounding. Through rigorous testing on three standard domain generalization benchmarks, our proposed framework showcases its superiority over conventional domain generalization approaches in terms of OOD detection performance. Moreover, it holds its ground by maintaining comparable InD classification accuracy.
In the problem of online learning for changing environments, data are sequentially received one after another over time, and their distribution assumptions may vary frequently. Although existing methods demonstrate the effectiveness of their learning algorithms by providing a tight bound on either dynamic regret or adaptive regret, most of them completely ignore learning with model fairness, defined as the statistical parity across different sub-population (e.g., race and gender). Another drawback is that when adapting to a new environment, an online learner needs to update model parameters with a global change, which is costly and inefficient. Inspired by the sparse mechanism shift hypothesis, we claim that changing environments in online learning can be attributed to partial changes in learned parameters that are specific to environments and the rest remain invariant to changing environments. To this end, in this paper, we propose a novel algorithm under the assumption that data collected at each time can be disentangled with two representations, an environment-invariant semantic factor and an environment-specific variation factor. The semantic factor is further used for fair prediction under a group fairness constraint. To evaluate the sequence of model parameters generated by the learner, a novel regret is proposed in which it takes a mixed form of dynamic and static regret metrics followed by a fairness-aware long-term constraint. The detailed analysis provides theoretical guarantees for loss regret and violation of cumulative fairness constraints. Empirical evaluations on real-world datasets demonstrate our proposed method sequentially outperforms baseline methods in model accuracy and fairness.
The fairness-aware online learning framework has arisen as a powerful tool for the continual lifelong learning setting. The goal for the learner is to sequentially learn new tasks where they come one after another over time and the learner ensures the statistic parity of the new coming task across different protected sub-populations (e.g. race and gender). A major drawback of existing methods is that they make heavy use of the i.i.d assumption for data and hence provide static regret analysis for the framework. However, low static regret cannot imply a good performance in changing environments where tasks are sampled from heterogeneous distributions. To address the fairness-aware online learning problem in changing environments, in this paper, we first construct a novel regret metric FairSAR by adding long-term fairness constraints onto a strongly adapted loss regret. Furthermore, to determine a good model parameter at each round, we propose a novel adaptive fairness-aware online meta-learning algorithm, namely FairSAOML, which is able to adapt to changing environments in both bias control and model precision. The problem is formulated in the form of a bi-level convex-concave optimization with respect to the model's primal and dual parameters that are associated with the model's accuracy and fairness, respectively. The theoretic analysis provides sub-linear upper bounds for both loss regret and violation of cumulative fairness constraints. Our experimental evaluation on different real-world datasets with settings of changing environments suggests that the proposed FairSAOML significantly outperforms alternatives based on the best prior online learning approaches.
Compared with MS-COCO, the dataset for the competition has a larger proportion of large objects which area is greater than 96x96 pixels. As getting fine boundaries is vitally important for large object segmentation, Mask R-CNN with PointRend is selected as the base segmentation framework to output high-quality object boundaries. Besides, a better engine that integrates ResNeSt, FPN and DCNv2, and a range of effective tricks that including multi-scale training and test time augmentation are applied to improve segmentation performance. Our best performance is an ensemble of four models (three PointRend-based models and SOLOv2), which won the 2nd place in IJCAI-PRICAI 3D AI Challenge 2020: Instance Segmentation.
Reinforcement learning usually uses the feedback rewards of environmental to train agents. But the rewards in the actual environment are sparse, and even some environments will not rewards. Most of the current methods are difficult to get good performance in sparse reward or non-reward environments. Although using shaped rewards is effective when solving sparse reward tasks, it is limited to specific problems and learning is also susceptible to local optima. We propose a model-free method that does not rely on environmental rewards to solve the problem of sparse rewards in the general environment. Our method use the minimum number of transitions between states as the distance to replace the rewards of environmental, and proposes a goal-distance gradient to achieve policy improvement. We also introduce a bridge point planning method based on the characteristics of our method to improve exploration efficiency, thereby solving more complex tasks. Experiments show that our method performs better on sparse reward and local optimal problems in complex environments than previous work.