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Royson Lee, Minyoung Kim, Da Li, Xinchi Qiu, Timothy Hospedales, Ferenc Huszár, Nicholas D. Lane

Federated learning (FL) research has made progress in developing algorithms for distributed learning of global models, as well as algorithms for local personalization of those common models to the specifics of each client's local data distribution. However, different FL problems may require different personalization strategies, and it may not even be possible to define an effective one-size-fits-all personalization strategy for all clients: depending on how similar each client's optimal predictor is to that of the global model, different personalization strategies may be preferred. In this paper, we consider the federated meta-learning problem of learning personalization strategies. Specifically, we consider meta-nets that induce the batch-norm and learning rate parameters for each client given local data statistics. By learning these meta-nets through FL, we allow the whole FL network to collaborate in learning a customized personalization strategy for each client. Empirical results show that this framework improves on a range of standard hand-crafted personalization baselines in both label and feature shift situations.

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Minyoung Kim, Timothy Hospedales

We release a new Bayesian neural network library for PyTorch for large-scale deep networks. Our library implements mainstream approximate Bayesian inference algorithms: variational inference, MC-dropout, stochastic-gradient MCMC, and Laplace approximation. The main differences from other existing Bayesian neural network libraries are as follows: 1) Our library can deal with very large-scale deep networks including Vision Transformers (ViTs). 2) We need virtually zero code modifications for users (e.g., the backbone network definition codes do not neet to be modified at all). 3) Our library also allows the pre-trained model weights to serve as a prior mean, which is very useful for performing Bayesian inference with the large-scale foundation models like ViTs that are hard to optimise from scratch with the downstream data alone. Our code is publicly available at: \url{https://github.com/SamsungLabs/BayesDLL}\footnote{A mirror repository is also available at: \url{https://github.com/minyoungkim21/BayesDLL}.}.

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Minyoung Kim, Timothy Hospedales

We propose a novel hierarchical Bayesian model for learning with a large (possibly infinite) number of tasks/episodes, which suits well the few-shot meta learning problem. We consider episode-wise random variables to model episode-specific target generative processes, where these local random variables are governed by a higher-level global random variate. The global variable helps memorize the important information from historic episodes while controlling how much the model needs to be adapted to new episodes in a principled Bayesian manner. Within our model framework, the prediction on a novel episode/task can be seen as a Bayesian inference problem. However, a main obstacle in learning with a large/infinite number of local random variables in online nature, is that one is not allowed to store the posterior distribution of the current local random variable for frequent future updates, typical in conventional variational inference. We need to be able to treat each local variable as a one-time iterate in the optimization. We propose a Normal-Inverse-Wishart model, for which we show that this one-time iterate optimization becomes feasible due to the approximate closed-form solutions for the local posterior distributions. The resulting algorithm is more attractive than the MAML in that it is not required to maintain computational graphs for the whole gradient optimization steps per episode. Our approach is also different from existing Bayesian meta learning methods in that unlike dealing with a single random variable for the whole episodes, our approach has a hierarchical structure that allows one-time episodic optimization, desirable for principled Bayesian learning with many/infinite tasks. The code is available at \url{https://github.com/minyoungkim21/niwmeta}.

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Minyoung Kim, Timothy Hospedales

We propose a novel hierarchical Bayesian approach to Federated Learning (FL), where our model reasonably describes the generative process of clients' local data via hierarchical Bayesian modeling: constituting random variables of local models for clients that are governed by a higher-level global variate. Interestingly, the variational inference in our Bayesian model leads to an optimisation problem whose block-coordinate descent solution becomes a distributed algorithm that is separable over clients and allows them not to reveal their own private data at all, thus fully compatible with FL. We also highlight that our block-coordinate algorithm has particular forms that subsume the well-known FL algorithms including Fed-Avg and Fed-Prox as special cases. Beyond introducing novel modeling and derivations, we also offer convergence analysis showing that our block-coordinate FL algorithm converges to an (local) optimum of the objective at the rate of $O(1/\sqrt{t})$, the same rate as regular (centralised) SGD, as well as the generalisation error analysis where we prove that the test error of our model on unseen data is guaranteed to vanish as we increase the training data size, thus asymptotically optimal.

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Minyoung Kim, Da Li, Timothy Hospedales

We tackle the domain generalisation (DG) problem by posing it as a domain adaptation (DA) task where we adversarially synthesise the worst-case target domain and adapt a model to that worst-case domain, thereby improving the model's robustness. To synthesise data that is challenging yet semantics-preserving, we generate Fourier amplitude images and combine them with source domain phase images, exploiting the widely believed conjecture from signal processing that amplitude spectra mainly determines image style, while phase data mainly captures image semantics. To synthesise a worst-case domain for adaptation, we train the classifier and the amplitude generator adversarially. Specifically, we exploit the maximum classifier discrepancy (MCD) principle from DA that relates the target domain performance to the discrepancy of classifiers in the model hypothesis space. By Bayesian hypothesis modeling, we express the model hypothesis space effectively as a posterior distribution over classifiers given the source domains, making adversarial MCD minimisation feasible. On the DomainBed benchmark including the large-scale DomainNet dataset, the proposed approach yields significantly improved domain generalisation performance over the state-of-the-art.

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Minyoung Kim, Da Li, Shell Xu Hu, Timothy M. Hospedales

Recent sharpness-aware minimisation (SAM) is known to find flat minima which is beneficial for better generalisation with improved robustness. SAM essentially modifies the loss function by reporting the maximum loss value within the small neighborhood around the current iterate. However, it uses the Euclidean ball to define the neighborhood, which can be inaccurate since loss functions for neural networks are typically defined over probability distributions (e.g., class predictive probabilities), rendering the parameter space non Euclidean. In this paper we consider the information geometry of the model parameter space when defining the neighborhood, namely replacing SAM's Euclidean balls with ellipsoids induced by the Fisher information. Our approach, dubbed Fisher SAM, defines more accurate neighborhood structures that conform to the intrinsic metric of the underlying statistical manifold. For instance, SAM may probe the worst-case loss value at either a too nearby or inappropriately distant point due to the ignorance of the parameter space geometry, which is avoided by our Fisher SAM. Another recent Adaptive SAM approach stretches/shrinks the Euclidean ball in accordance with the scale of the parameter magnitudes. This might be dangerous, potentially destroying the neighborhood structure. We demonstrate improved performance of the proposed Fisher SAM on several benchmark datasets/tasks.

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Shell Xu Hu, Da Li, Jan Stühmer, Minyoung Kim, Timothy M. Hospedales

Few-shot learning (FSL) is an important and topical problem in computer vision that has motivated extensive research into numerous methods spanning from sophisticated meta-learning methods to simple transfer learning baselines. We seek to push the limits of a simple-but-effective pipeline for more realistic and practical settings of few-shot image classification. To this end, we explore few-shot learning from the perspective of neural network architecture, as well as a three stage pipeline of network updates under different data supplies, where unsupervised external data is considered for pre-training, base categories are used to simulate few-shot tasks for meta-training, and the scarcely labelled data of an novel task is taken for fine-tuning. We investigate questions such as: (1) How pre-training on external data benefits FSL? (2) How state-of-the-art transformer architectures can be exploited? and (3) How fine-tuning mitigates domain shift? Ultimately, we show that a simple transformer-based pipeline yields surprisingly good performance on standard benchmarks such as Mini-ImageNet, CIFAR-FS, CDFSL and Meta-Dataset. Our code and demo are available at https://hushell.github.io/pmf.

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Minyoung Kim

We tackle the cross-modal retrieval problem, where the training is only supervised by the relevant multi-modal pairs in the data. The contrastive learning is the most popular approach for this task. However, its sampling complexity for learning is quadratic in the number of training data points. Moreover, it makes potentially wrong assumption that the instances in different pairs are automatically irrelevant. To address these issues, we propose a novel loss function that is based on self-labeling of the unknown classes. Specifically, we aim to predict class labels of the data instances in each modality, and assign those labels to the corresponding instances in the other modality (i.e., swapping the pseudo labels). With these swapped labels, we learn the data embedding for each modality using the supervised cross-entropy loss, hence leading to linear sampling complexity. We also maintain the queues for storing the embeddings of the latest batches, for which clustering assignment and embedding learning are done at the same time in an online fashion. This removes computational overhead of injecting intermittent epochs of entire training data sweep for offline clustering. We tested our approach on several real-world cross-modal retrieval problems, including text-based video retrieval, sketch-based image retrieval, and image-text retrieval, and for all these tasks our method achieves significant performance improvement over the contrastive learning.

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Minyoung Kim, Timothy Hospedales

The meta learning few-shot classification is an emerging problem in machine learning that received enormous attention recently, where the goal is to learn a model that can quickly adapt to a new task with only a few labeled data. We consider the Bayesian Gaussian process (GP) approach, in which we meta-learn the GP prior, and the adaptation to a new task is carried out by the GP predictive model from the posterior inference. We adopt the Laplace posterior approximation, but to circumvent the iterative gradient steps for finding the MAP solution, we introduce a novel linear discriminant analysis (LDA) plugin as a surrogate for the MAP solution. In essence, the MAP solution is approximated by the LDA estimate, but to take the GP prior into account, we adopt the prior-norm adjustment to estimate LDA's shared variance parameters, which ensures that the adjusted estimate is consistent with the GP prior. This enables closed-form differentiable GP posteriors and predictive distributions, thus allowing fast meta training. We demonstrate considerable improvement over the previous approaches.

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Minyoung Kim, Young J. Kim

We propose a 3D face generative model with local weights to increase the model's variations and expressiveness. The proposed model allows partial manipulation of the face while still learning the whole face mesh. For this purpose, we address an effective way to extract local facial features from the entire data and explore a way to manipulate them during a holistic generation. First, we factorize the latent space of the whole face to the subspace indicating different parts of the face. In addition, local weights generated by non-negative matrix factorization are applied to the factorized latent space so that the decomposed part space is semantically meaningful. We experiment with our model and observe that effective facial part manipulation is possible and that the model's expressiveness is improved.

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