Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Daiki E. Matsunaga, Jongmin Lee, Jaeseok Yoon, Stefanos Leonardos, Pieter Abbeel, Kee-Eung Kim

One of the main challenges in offline Reinforcement Learning (RL) is the distribution shift that arises from the learned policy deviating from the data collection policy. This is often addressed by avoiding out-of-distribution (OOD) actions during policy improvement as their presence can lead to substantial performance degradation. This challenge is amplified in the offline Multi-Agent RL (MARL) setting since the joint action space grows exponentially with the number of agents. To avoid this curse of dimensionality, existing MARL methods adopt either value decomposition methods or fully decentralized training of individual agents. However, even when combined with standard conservatism principles, these methods can still result in the selection of OOD joint actions in offline MARL. To this end, we introduce AlberDICE, an offline MARL algorithm that alternatively performs centralized training of individual agents based on stationary distribution optimization. AlberDICE circumvents the exponential complexity of MARL by computing the best response of one agent at a time while effectively avoiding OOD joint action selection. Theoretically, we show that the alternating optimization procedure converges to Nash policies. In the experiments, we demonstrate that AlberDICE significantly outperforms baseline algorithms on a standard suite of MARL benchmarks.

Via

Hyunin Lee, Yuhao Ding, Jongmin Lee, Ming Jin, Javad Lavaei, Somayeh Sojoudi

We first raise and tackle ``time synchronization'' issue between the agent and the environment in non-stationary reinforcement learning (RL), a crucial factor hindering its real-world applications. In reality, environmental changes occur over wall-clock time ($\mathfrak{t}$) rather than episode progress ($k$), where wall-clock time signifies the actual elapsed time within the fixed duration $\mathfrak{t} \in [0, T]$. In existing works, at episode $k$, the agent rollouts a trajectory and trains a policy before transitioning to episode $k+1$. In the context of the time-desynchronized environment, however, the agent at time $\mathfrak{t}_k$ allocates $\Delta \mathfrak{t}$ for trajectory generation and training, subsequently moves to the next episode at $\mathfrak{t}_{k+1}=\mathfrak{t}_{k}+\Delta \mathfrak{t}$. Despite a fixed total episode ($K$), the agent accumulates different trajectories influenced by the choice of \textit{interaction times} ($\mathfrak{t}_1,\mathfrak{t}_2,...,\mathfrak{t}_K$), significantly impacting the sub-optimality gap of policy. We propose a Proactively Synchronizing Tempo (ProST) framework that computes optimal $\{ \mathfrak{t}_1,\mathfrak{t}_2,...,\mathfrak{t}_K \} (= \{ \mathfrak{t} \}_{1:K})$. Our main contribution is that we show optimal $\{ \mathfrak{t} \}_{1:K}$ trades-off between the policy training time (agent tempo) and how fast the environment changes (environment tempo). Theoretically, this work establishes an optimal $\{ \mathfrak{t} \}_{1:K}$ as a function of the degree of the environment's non-stationarity while also achieving a sublinear dynamic regret. Our experimental evaluation on various high dimensional non-stationary environments shows that the ProST framework achieves a higher online return at optimal $\{ \mathfrak{t} \}_{1:K}$ than the existing methods.

Via

Jongmin Lee, Ernest K. Ryu

Value Iteration (VI) is foundational to the theory and practice of modern reinforcement learning, and it is known to converge at a $\mathcal{O}(\gamma^k)$-rate, where $\gamma$ is the discount factor. Surprisingly, however, the optimal rate for the VI setup was not known, and finding a general acceleration mechanism has been an open problem. In this paper, we present the first accelerated VI for both the Bellman consistency and optimality operators. Our method, called Anc-VI, is based on an \emph{anchoring} mechanism (distinct from Nesterov's acceleration), and it reduces the Bellman error faster than standard VI. In particular, Anc-VI exhibits a $\mathcal{O}(1/k)$-rate for $\gamma\approx 1$ or even $\gamma=1$, while standard VI has rate $\mathcal{O}(1)$ for $\gamma\ge 1-1/k$, where $k$ is the iteration count. We also provide a complexity lower bound matching the upper bound up to a constant factor of $4$, thereby establishing optimality of the accelerated rate of Anc-VI. Finally, we show that the anchoring mechanism provides the same benefit in the approximate VI and Gauss--Seidel VI setups as well.

Via

Jongmin Lee, Byungjin Kim, Seungwook Kim, Minsu Cho

Extracting discriminative local features that are invariant to imaging variations is an integral part of establishing correspondences between images. In this work, we introduce a self-supervised learning framework to extract discriminative rotation-invariant descriptors using group-equivariant CNNs. Thanks to employing group-equivariant CNNs, our method effectively learns to obtain rotation-equivariant features and their orientations explicitly, without having to perform sophisticated data augmentations. The resultant features and their orientations are further processed by group aligning, a novel invariant mapping technique that shifts the group-equivariant features by their orientations along the group dimension. Our group aligning technique achieves rotation-invariance without any collapse of the group dimension and thus eschews loss of discriminability. The proposed method is trained end-to-end in a self-supervised manner, where we use an orientation alignment loss for the orientation estimation and a contrastive descriptor loss for robust local descriptors to geometric/photometric variations. Our method demonstrates state-of-the-art matching accuracy among existing rotation-invariant descriptors under varying rotation and also shows competitive results when transferred to the task of keypoint matching and camera pose estimation.

Via

Haanvid Lee, Jongmin Lee, Yunseon Choi, Wonseok Jeon, Byung-Jun Lee, Yung-Kyun Noh, Kee-Eung Kim

We consider local kernel metric learning for off-policy evaluation (OPE) of deterministic policies in contextual bandits with continuous action spaces. Our work is motivated by practical scenarios where the target policy needs to be deterministic due to domain requirements, such as prescription of treatment dosage and duration in medicine. Although importance sampling (IS) provides a basic principle for OPE, it is ill-posed for the deterministic target policy with continuous actions. Our main idea is to relax the target policy and pose the problem as kernel-based estimation, where we learn the kernel metric in order to minimize the overall mean squared error (MSE). We present an analytic solution for the optimal metric, based on the analysis of bias and variance. Whereas prior work has been limited to scalar action spaces or kernel bandwidth selection, our work takes a step further being capable of vector action spaces and metric optimization. We show that our estimator is consistent, and significantly reduces the MSE compared to baseline OPE methods through experiments on various domains.

Via

Jongmin Lee, Yoonwoo Jeong, Minsu Cho

We study the problem of learning to assign a characteristic pose, i.e., scale and orientation, for an image region of interest. Despite its apparent simplicity, the problem is non-trivial; it is hard to obtain a large-scale set of image regions with explicit pose annotations that a model directly learns from. To tackle the issue, we propose a self-supervised learning framework with a histogram alignment technique. It generates pairs of image patches by random rescaling/rotating and then train an estimator to predict their scale/orientation values so that their relative difference is consistent with the rescaling/rotating used. The estimator learns to predict a non-parametric histogram distribution of scale/orientation without any supervision. Experiments show that it significantly outperforms previous methods in scale/orientation estimation and also improves image matching and 6 DoF camera pose estimation by incorporating our patch poses into a matching process.

Via

Jongmin Lee, Cosmin Paduraru, Daniel J. Mankowitz, Nicolas Heess, Doina Precup, Kee-Eung Kim, Arthur Guez

We consider the offline constrained reinforcement learning (RL) problem, in which the agent aims to compute a policy that maximizes expected return while satisfying given cost constraints, learning only from a pre-collected dataset. This problem setting is appealing in many real-world scenarios, where direct interaction with the environment is costly or risky, and where the resulting policy should comply with safety constraints. However, it is challenging to compute a policy that guarantees satisfying the cost constraints in the offline RL setting, since the off-policy evaluation inherently has an estimation error. In this paper, we present an offline constrained RL algorithm that optimizes the policy in the space of the stationary distribution. Our algorithm, COptiDICE, directly estimates the stationary distribution corrections of the optimal policy with respect to returns, while constraining the cost upper bound, with the goal of yielding a cost-conservative policy for actual constraint satisfaction. Experimental results show that COptiDICE attains better policies in terms of constraint satisfaction and return-maximization, outperforming baseline algorithms.

Via

Jongmin Lee, Byungjin Kim, Minsu Cho

Detecting robust keypoints from an image is an integral part of many computer vision problems, and the characteristic orientation and scale of keypoints play an important role for keypoint description and matching. Existing learning-based methods for keypoint detection rely on standard translation-equivariant CNNs but often fail to detect reliable keypoints against geometric variations. To learn to detect robust oriented keypoints, we introduce a self-supervised learning framework using rotation-equivariant CNNs. We propose a dense orientation alignment loss by an image pair generated by synthetic transformations for training a histogram-based orientation map. Our method outperforms the previous methods on an image matching benchmark and a camera pose estimation benchmark.

Via

Geon-Hyeong Kim, Jongmin Lee, Youngsoo Jang, Hongseok Yang, Kee-Eung Kim

We consider the problem of imitation from observation (IfO), in which the agent aims to mimic the expert's behavior from the state-only demonstrations by experts. We additionally assume that the agent cannot interact with the environment but has access to the action-labeled transition data collected by some agent with unknown quality. This offline setting for IfO is appealing in many real-world scenarios where the ground-truth expert actions are inaccessible and the arbitrary environment interactions are costly or risky. In this paper, we present LobsDICE, an offline IfO algorithm that learns to imitate the expert policy via optimization in the space of stationary distributions. Our algorithm solves a single convex minimization problem, which minimizes the divergence between the two state-transition distributions induced by the expert and the agent policy. On an extensive set of offline IfO tasks, LobsDICE shows promising results, outperforming strong baseline algorithms.

Via

Jongmin Lee, Joo Young Choi, Ernest K. Ryu, Albert No

The tremendous recent progress in analyzing the training dynamics of overparameterized neural networks has primarily focused on wide networks and therefore does not sufficiently address the role of depth in deep learning. In this work, we present the first trainability guarantee of infinitely deep but narrow neural networks. We study the infinite-depth limit of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) with a specific initialization and establish a trainability guarantee using the NTK theory. We then extend the analysis to an infinitely deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and perform brief experiments

Via