Grapheme-to-phoneme (G2P) transduction is part of the standard text-to-speech (TTS) pipeline. However, G2P conversion is difficult for languages that contain heteronyms -- words that have one spelling but can be pronounced in multiple ways. G2P datasets with annotated heteronyms are limited in size and expensive to create, as human labeling remains the primary method for heteronym disambiguation. We propose a RAD-TTS Aligner-based pipeline to automatically disambiguate heteronyms in datasets that contain both audio with text transcripts. The best pronunciation can be chosen by generating all possible candidates for each heteronym and scoring them with an Aligner model. The resulting labels can be used to create training datasets for use in both multi-stage and end-to-end G2P systems.
In this work, we propose a zero-shot voice conversion method using speech representations trained with self-supervised learning. First, we develop a multi-task model to decompose a speech utterance into features such as linguistic content, speaker characteristics, and speaking style. To disentangle content and speaker representations, we propose a training strategy based on Siamese networks that encourages similarity between the content representations of the original and pitch-shifted audio. Next, we develop a synthesis model with pitch and duration predictors that can effectively reconstruct the speech signal from its decomposed representation. Our framework allows controllable and speaker-adaptive synthesis to perform zero-shot any-to-any voice conversion achieving state-of-the-art results on metrics evaluating speaker similarity, intelligibility, and naturalness. Using just 10 seconds of data for a target speaker, our framework can perform voice swapping and achieves a speaker verification EER of 5.5% for seen speakers and 8.4% for unseen speakers.
Explainable artificial intelligence (XAI) methods lack ground truth. In its place, method developers have relied on axioms to determine desirable properties for their explanations' behavior. For high stakes uses of machine learning that require explainability, it is not sufficient to rely on axioms as the implementation, or its usage, can fail to live up to the ideal. As a result, there exists active research on validating the performance of XAI methods. The need for validation is especially magnified in domains with a reliance on XAI. A procedure frequently used to assess their utility, and to some extent their fidelity, is an ablation study. By perturbing the input variables in rank order of importance, the goal is to assess the sensitivity of the model's performance. Perturbing important variables should correlate with larger decreases in measures of model capability than perturbing less important features. While the intent is clear, the actual implementation details have not been studied rigorously for tabular data. Using five datasets, three XAI methods, four baselines, and three perturbations, we aim to show 1) how varying perturbations and adding simple guardrails can help to avoid potentially flawed conclusions, 2) how treatment of categorical variables is an important consideration in both post-hoc explainability and ablation studies, and 3) how to identify useful baselines for XAI methods and viable perturbations for ablation studies.
NeMo (Neural Modules) is a Python framework-agnostic toolkit for creating AI applications through re-usability, abstraction, and composition. NeMo is built around neural modules, conceptual blocks of neural networks that take typed inputs and produce typed outputs. Such modules typically represent data layers, encoders, decoders, language models, loss functions, or methods of combining activations. NeMo makes it easy to combine and re-use these building blocks while providing a level of semantic correctness checking via its neural type system. The toolkit comes with extendable collections of pre-built modules for automatic speech recognition and natural language processing. Furthermore, NeMo provides built-in support for distributed training and mixed precision on latest NVIDIA GPUs. NeMo is open-source https://github.com/NVIDIA/NeMo