Interpretability is a crucial factor in building reliable models for various medical applications. Concept Bottleneck Models (CBMs) enable interpretable image classification by utilizing human-understandable concepts as intermediate targets. Unlike conventional methods that require extensive human labor to construct the concept set, recent works leveraging Large Language Models (LLMs) for generating concepts made automatic concept generation possible. However, those methods do not consider whether a concept is visually relevant or not, which is an important factor in computing meaningful concept scores. Therefore, we propose a visual activation score that measures whether the concept contains visual cues or not, which can be easily computed with unlabeled image data. Computed visual activation scores are then used to filter out the less visible concepts, thus resulting in a final concept set with visually meaningful concepts. Our experimental results show that adopting the proposed visual activation score for concept filtering consistently boosts performance compared to the baseline. Moreover, qualitative analyses also validate that visually relevant concepts are successfully selected with the visual activation score.
We present a learning framework for reconstructing neural scene representations from a small number of unconstrained tourist photos. Since each image contains transient occluders, decomposing the static and transient components is necessary to construct radiance fields with such in-the-wild photographs where existing methods require a lot of training data. We introduce SF-NeRF, aiming to disentangle those two components with only a few images given, which exploits semantic information without any supervision. The proposed method contains an occlusion filtering module that predicts the transient color and its opacity for each pixel, which enables the NeRF model to solely learn the static scene representation. This filtering module learns the transient phenomena guided by pixel-wise semantic features obtained by a trainable image encoder that can be trained across multiple scenes to learn the prior of transient objects. Furthermore, we present two techniques to prevent ambiguous decomposition and noisy results of the filtering module. We demonstrate that our method outperforms state-of-the-art novel view synthesis methods on Phototourism dataset in a few-shot setting.
Data augmentation is key to improving the generalization ability of deep learning models. Mixup is a simple and widely-used data augmentation technique that has proven effective in alleviating the problems of overfitting and data scarcity. Also, recent studies of saliency-aware Mixup in the image domain show that preserving discriminative parts is beneficial to improving the generalization performance. However, these Mixup-based data augmentations are underexplored in 3D vision, especially in point clouds. In this paper, we propose SageMix, a saliency-guided Mixup for point clouds to preserve salient local structures. Specifically, we extract salient regions from two point clouds and smoothly combine them into one continuous shape. With a simple sequential sampling by re-weighted saliency scores, SageMix preserves the local structure of salient regions. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing Mixup methods in various benchmark point cloud datasets. With PointNet++, our method achieves an accuracy gain of 2.6% and 4.0% over standard training in 3D Warehouse dataset (MN40) and ScanObjectNN, respectively. In addition to generalization performance, SageMix improves robustness and uncertainty calibration. Moreover, when adopting our method to various tasks including part segmentation and standard 2D image classification, our method achieves competitive performance.