Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is widely applied in medical diagnosis, industrial inspection, and environmental monitoring. Combining the physical principles of the imaging system with the advantages of data-driven deep learning networks, physics-embedded deep unrolling networks have recently emerged as a promising solution in computational imaging. However, the inherent nonlinear and ill-posed properties of EIT image reconstruction still present challenges to existing methods in terms of accuracy and stability. To tackle this challenge, we propose the learned half-quadratic splitting (HQSNet) algorithm for incorporating physics into learning-based EIT imaging. We then apply Anderson acceleration (AA) to the HQSNet algorithm, denoted as AA-HQSNet, which can be interpreted as AA applied to the Gauss-Newton step and the learned proximal gradient descent step of the HQSNet, respectively. AA is a widely-used technique for accelerating the convergence of fixed-point iterative algorithms and has gained significant interest in numerical optimization and machine learning. However, the technique has received little attention in the inverse problems community thus far. Employing AA enhances the convergence rate compared to the standard HQSNet while simultaneously avoiding artifacts in the reconstructions. Lastly, we conduct rigorous numerical and visual experiments to show that the AA module strengthens the HQSNet, leading to robust, accurate, and considerably superior reconstructions compared to state-of-the-art methods. Our Anderson acceleration scheme to enhance HQSNet is generic and can be applied to improve the performance of various physics-embedded deep learning methods.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common subtype. Exploiting the potential value of the histopathology images can promote precision medicine in oncology. Tissue segmentation is the basic upstream task of histopathology image analysis. Existing deep learning models have achieved superior segmentation performance but require sufficient pixel-level annotations, which is time-consuming and expensive. To enrich the label resources of LUAD and to alleviate the annotation efforts, we organize this challenge WSSS4LUAD to call for the outstanding weakly-supervised semantic segmentation (WSSS) techniques for histopathology images of LUAD. Participants have to design the algorithm to segment tumor epithelial, tumor-associated stroma and normal tissue with only patch-level labels. This challenge includes 10,091 patch-level annotations (the training set) and over 130 million labeled pixels (the validation and test sets), from 87 WSIs (67 from GDPH, 20 from TCGA). All the labels were generated by a pathologist-in-the-loop pipeline with the help of AI models and checked by the label review board. Among 532 registrations, 28 teams submitted the results in the test phase with over 1,000 submissions. Finally, the first place team achieved mIoU of 0.8413 (tumor: 0.8389, stroma: 0.7931, normal: 0.8919). According to the technical reports of the top-tier teams, CAM is still the most popular approach in WSSS. Cutmix data augmentation has been widely adopted to generate more reliable samples. With the success of this challenge, we believe that WSSS approaches with patch-level annotations can be a complement to the traditional pixel annotations while reducing the annotation efforts. The entire dataset has been released to encourage more researches on computational pathology in LUAD and more novel WSSS techniques.
Automotive-Industry 5.0 will use beyond fifth-generation (B5G) technologies to provide robust, computationally intelligent, and energy-efficient data sharing among various onboard sensors, vehicles, and other devices. Recently, ambient backscatter communications (AmBC) have gained significant interest in the research community for providing battery-free communications. AmBC can modulate useful data and reflect it towards near devices using the energy and frequency of existing RF signals. However, obtaining channel state information (CSI) for AmBC systems would be very challenging due to no pilot sequences and limited power. As one of the latest members of multiple access technology, non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) has emerged as a promising solution for connecting large-scale devices over the same spectral resources in B5G wireless networks. Under imperfect CSI, this paper provides a new optimization framework for energy-efficient transmission in AmBC enhanced NOMA cooperative vehicle-to-everything (V2X) networks. We simultaneously minimize the total transmit power of the V2X network by optimizing the power allocation at BS and reflection coefficient at backscatter sensors while guaranteeing the individual quality of services. The problem of total power minimization is formulated as non-convex optimization and coupled on multiple variables, making it complex and challenging. Therefore, we first decouple the original problem into two sub-problems and convert the nonlinear rate constraints into linear constraints. Then, we adopt the iterative sub-gradient method to obtain an efficient solution. For comparison, we also present a conventional NOMA cooperative V2X network without AmBC. Simulation results show the benefits of our proposed AmBC enhanced NOMA cooperative V2X network in terms of total achievable energy efficiency.
With rising uncertainty in the real world, online Reinforcement Learning (RL) has been receiving increasing attention due to its fast learning capability and improving data efficiency. However, online RL often suffers from complex Value Function Approximation (VFA) and catastrophic interference, creating difficulty for the deep neural network to be applied to an online RL algorithm in a fully online setting. Therefore, a simpler and more adaptive approach is introduced to evaluate value function with the kernel-based model. Sparse representations are superior at handling interference, indicating that competitive sparse representations should be learnable, non-prior, non-truncated and explicit when compared with current sparse representation methods. Moreover, in learning sparse representations, attention mechanisms are utilized to represent the degree of sparsification, and a smooth attentive function is introduced into the kernel-based VFA. In this paper, we propose an Online Attentive Kernel-Based Temporal Difference (OAKTD) algorithm using two-timescale optimization and provide convergence analysis of our proposed algorithm. Experimental evaluations showed that OAKTD outperformed several Online Kernel-based Temporal Difference (OKTD) learning algorithms in addition to the Temporal Difference (TD) learning algorithm with Tile Coding on public Mountain Car, Acrobot, CartPole and Puddle World tasks.
Reactive distillation is a special distillation technology based on the coupling of chemical reaction and distillation. It has the characteristics of low energy consumption and high separation efficiency. However, because the combination of reaction and separation produces highly nonlinear robust behavior, the control and optimization of the reactive distillation process cannot use conventional methods, but must rely on neural network algorithms. This paper briefly describes the characteristics and research progress of reactive distillation technology and neural network algorithms, and summarizes the application of neural network algorithms in reactive distillation, aiming to provide reference for the development and innovation of industry technology.