Diffusion Models (DMs) have recently set state-of-the-art on many generation benchmarks. However, there are myriad ways to describe them mathematically, which makes it difficult to develop a simple understanding of how they work. In this survey, we provide a concise overview of DMs from the perspective of dynamical systems and Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) which exposes a mathematical connection to the highly related yet often overlooked class of energy-based models, called Associative Memories (AMs). Energy-based AMs are a theoretical framework that behave much like denoising DMs, but they enable us to directly compute a Lyapunov energy function on which we can perform gradient descent to denoise data. We then summarize the 40 year history of energy-based AMs, beginning with the original Hopfield Network, and discuss new research directions for AMs and DMs that are revealed by characterizing the extent of their similarities and differences
Diffusion-based generative models' impressive ability to create convincing images has captured global attention. However, their complex internal structures and operations often make them difficult for non-experts to understand. We present Diffusion Explainer, the first interactive visualization tool that explains how Stable Diffusion transforms text prompts into images. Diffusion Explainer tightly integrates a visual overview of Stable Diffusion's complex components with detailed explanations of their underlying operations, enabling users to fluidly transition between multiple levels of abstraction through animations and interactive elements. By comparing the evolutions of image representations guided by two related text prompts over refinement timesteps, users can discover the impact of prompts on image generation. Diffusion Explainer runs locally in users' web browsers without the need for installation or specialized hardware, broadening the public's education access to modern AI techniques. Our open-sourced tool is available at: https://poloclub.github.io/diffusion-explainer/. A video demo is available at https://youtu.be/Zg4gxdIWDds.
Transformers have become the de facto models of choice in machine learning, typically leading to impressive performance on many applications. At the same time, the architectural development in the transformer world is mostly driven by empirical findings, and the theoretical understanding of their architectural building blocks is rather limited. In contrast, Dense Associative Memory models or Modern Hopfield Networks have a well-established theoretical foundation, but have not yet demonstrated truly impressive practical results. We propose a transformer architecture that replaces the sequence of feedforward transformer blocks with a single large Associative Memory model. Our novel architecture, called Energy Transformer (or ET for short), has many of the familiar architectural primitives that are often used in the current generation of transformers. However, it is not identical to the existing architectures. The sequence of transformer layers in ET is purposely designed to minimize a specifically engineered energy function, which is responsible for representing the relationships between the tokens. As a consequence of this computational principle, the attention in ET is different from the conventional attention mechanism. In this work, we introduce the theoretical foundations of ET, explore it's empirical capabilities using the image completion task, and obtain strong quantitative results on the graph anomaly detection task.
With a constant increase of learned parameters, modern neural language models become increasingly more powerful. Yet, explaining these complex model's behavior remains a widely unsolved problem. In this paper, we discuss the role interactive visualization can play in explaining NLP models (XNLP). We motivate the use of visualization in relation to target users and common NLP pipelines. We also present several use cases to provide concrete examples on XNLP with visualization. Finally, we point out an extensive list of research opportunities in this field.
Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.
State-of-the-art neural language models can now be used to solve ad-hoc language tasks through zero-shot prompting without the need for supervised training. This approach has gained popularity in recent years, and researchers have demonstrated prompts that achieve strong accuracy on specific NLP tasks. However, finding a prompt for new tasks requires experimentation. Different prompt templates with different wording choices lead to significant accuracy differences. PromptIDE allows users to experiment with prompt variations, visualize prompt performance, and iteratively optimize prompts. We developed a workflow that allows users to first focus on model feedback using small data before moving on to a large data regime that allows empirical grounding of promising prompts using quantitative measures of the task. The tool then allows easy deployment of the newly created ad-hoc models. We demonstrate the utility of PromptIDE (demo at http://prompt.vizhub.ai) and our workflow using several real-world use cases.
Evaluation in machine learning is usually informed by past choices, for example which datasets or metrics to use. This standardization enables the comparison on equal footing using leaderboards, but the evaluation choices become sub-optimal as better alternatives arise. This problem is especially pertinent in natural language generation which requires ever-improving suites of datasets, metrics, and human evaluation to make definitive claims. To make following best model evaluation practices easier, we introduce GEMv2. The new version of the Generation, Evaluation, and Metrics Benchmark introduces a modular infrastructure for dataset, model, and metric developers to benefit from each others work. GEMv2 supports 40 documented datasets in 51 languages. Models for all datasets can be evaluated online and our interactive data card creation and rendering tools make it easier to add new datasets to the living benchmark.
Saliency methods calculate how important each input feature is to a machine learning model's prediction, and are commonly used to understand model reasoning. "Faithfulness", or how fully and accurately the saliency output reflects the underlying model, is an oft-cited desideratum for these methods. However, explanation methods must necessarily sacrifice certain information in service of user-oriented goals such as simplicity. To that end, and akin to performance metrics, we frame saliency methods as abstractions: individual tools that provide insight into specific aspects of model behavior and entail tradeoffs. Using this framing, we describe a framework of nine dimensions to characterize and compare the properties of saliency methods. We group these dimensions into three categories that map to different phases of the interpretation process: methodology, or how the saliency is calculated; sensitivity, or relationships between the saliency result and the underlying model or input; and, perceptibility, or how a user interprets the result. As we show, these dimensions give us a granular vocabulary for describing and comparing saliency methods -- for instance, allowing us to develop "saliency cards" as a form of documentation, or helping downstream users understand tradeoffs and choose a method for a particular use case. Moreover, by situating existing saliency methods within this framework, we identify opportunities for future work, including filling gaps in the landscape and developing new evaluation metrics.